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Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-assisted biliary access is utilized when conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) fails. We report a 10-year experience utilizing a transduodenal EUS rendezvous via a transpapillary route without dilation of the transduodenal tract, followed by immediate ERCP access. Patients included all EUS-guided(More)
Marginal zone B cells (MZB) participate in the early immune response to several pathogens. In this study, we show that in μMT mice infected with Leishmania donovani, CD8 T cells displayed a greater cytotoxic potential and generated more effector memory cells compared with infected wild type mice. The frequency of parasite-specific, IFN-γ(+) CD4 T cells was(More)
A large proportion of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein is found in the nuclei of infected chicken embryo cells. Kinetic analysis indicated that much of the M protein enters the nucleus early in infection, concentrating in discrete regions of the nucleus and remaining there throughout infection. The M protein was found in localized(More)
In this report, we describe using ultraviolet (UV)-assisted capillary force lithography (CFL) to create a model substratum of anisotropic micro- and nanotopographic pattern arrays with variable local density for the analysis of cell-substratum interactions. A single cell adhesion substratum with the constant ridge width (1 microm), and depth (400 nm) and(More)
The chemical property and biological function of a protein is a direct consequence of its primary structure. Several algorithms have been developed which determine alignment and similarity of primary protein sequences. However, character based similarity cannot provide insight into the structural aspects of a protein. We present a method based on spectral(More)
Ischemia induces the production of angiogenic cytokines and the homing of bone-marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMDACs), but these adaptive responses become impaired with aging because of reduced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha. In this study, we analyzed the effect of augmenting HIF-1alpha levels in ischemic limb by intramuscular(More)
The great difficulty in eliciting broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates has been attributed to several intrinsic properties of their viral envelope glycoprotein, including its complex quaternary structure, extensive glycosylation, and marked genetic variability. Most previously(More)
Recent evidence from different research areas has revealed a novel mechanism of cell-cell communication by spontaneous intercellular transfer of cellular components (ICT). Here we studied this phenomenon by co-culturing different cells that contain distinct levels of proteins or markers for the plasma membrane or cytoplasm. We found that a variety of(More)
The advent of stem cell based therapies has brought regenerative medicine into an increased focus as a part of the modern medicine practice, with a potential to treat a myriad of intractable diseases in the future. Stem cells reside in a complex microenvironment presenting them with a multitude of potential cues that are chemical, physical, and mechanical(More)