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Plants belonging to the legume family develop nitrogen-fixing root nodules in symbiosis with bacteria commonly known as rhizobia. The legume host encodes all of the functions necessary to build the specialized symbiotic organ, the nodule, but the process is elicited by the bacteria. Molecular communication initiates the interaction, and signals, usually(More)
Most higher plant species can enter a root symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in which plant carbon is traded for fungal phosphate. This is an ancient symbiosis, which has been detected in fossils of early land plants. In contrast, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses of plants with bacteria evolved more recently, and are phylogenetically(More)
In legumes, root nodule organogenesis is activated in response to morphogenic lipochitin oligosaccharides that are synthesized by bacteria, commonly known as rhizobia. Successful symbiotic interaction results in the formation of highly specialized organs called root nodules, which provide a unique environment for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In wild-type(More)
In legumes, Nod-factor signaling by rhizobia initiates the development of the nitrogen-fixing nodule symbiosis, but the direct cell division stimulus that brings about nodule primordia inception in the root cortex remains obscure. We showed that Lotus japonicus plants homozygous for a mutation in the HYPERINFECTED 1 (HIT1) locus exhibit abundant(More)
A combined genetic and transcriptome analysis was performed to study the molecular basis of the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis. By testing the AM phenotype of nodulation-impaired mutants and complementation analysis, we defined seven Lotus japonicus common symbiosis genes (SYMRK, CASTOR, POLLUX, SYM3, SYM6, SYM15, and SYM24) that are required for both(More)
Previous analysis of the Lotus histidine kinase1 (Lhk1) cytokinin receptor gene has shown that it is required and also sufficient for nodule formation in Lotus japonicus. The L. japonicus mutant carrying the loss-of-function lhk1-1 allele is hyperinfected by its symbiotic partner, Mesorhizobium loti, in the initial absence of nodule organogenesis. At a(More)
Sesbania rostrata leghemoglobin glb3 (Srglb3) promoter sequences responsible for expression in infected cells of transgenic Lotus corniculatus nodules were delimited to a 78-bp Dral-Hinfl fragment. This region, which is located between coordinates -194 to -116 relative to the start codon of the Srglb3 gene, was named the nodule-infected cell expression(More)
Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) modulate signal transduction pathways and membrane-trafficking functions in eukaryotes. Here, we describe the characterization of a gene family from Lotus japonicus that encodes a novel class of plant PITP-like proteins (LjPLPs) and that is regulated in an unusual nodule-specific manner. Members of this gene(More)
One of the earliest responses of legumes to symbiotic signalling is oscillation of the calcium concentration in the nucleoplasm of root epidermal cells. Integration and decoding of the calcium-spiking signal involve a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) and its phosphorylation substrates, such as CYCLOPS. Here we describe the Lotus(More)
Legume plants carefully control the extent of nodulation in response to rhizobial infection. To examine the mechanism underlying this process we conducted a detailed analysis of the Lotus japonicus hypernodulating mutants, har1-1, 2 and 3 that define a new locus, HYPERNODULATION ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION (Har1), involved in root and symbiotic development.(More)