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The cytokines IL-1beta and IL-2 are released from activated glial cells in the central nervous system and they are able to enhance catecholaminergic neurotransmission. There is no data concerning influence of antipsychotics on glial cell activity. Antipsychotics reaching the brain act not only on neurons but probably also on glial cells. The aim of this(More)
Autophagy is an intracellular process of macromolecule and organelle degradation, which plays an important role both in maintaining homeostasis and in responding to various harmful stimuli. Recent studies clearly indicate upregulation of autophagy in neurons challenged with brain ischemia. In this paper we present biosynthesis of autophagosomes as well as(More)
Recent evidence suggests that metformin shows beneficial effects in experimental models of neuroinflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of metformin on phagocytosis and acidification of lysosomal/endosomal compartments in rat primary microglia in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or beta-peptides (25-35),(More)
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs. Until now the effect of antidepressants on cytokines has been examined only in plasma, blood mononuclear cells and spleen, which(More)
UNLABELLED Pancreatic cancer (PC) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are still significant problems. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of the activity and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and the concentrations of their tissue inhibitors (TIMP 1 and 2) in the PC compared to CP tissue homogenates. The study was performed in a(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) plays a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) by activating its specific receptors (T beta RI-T beta RIII). We investigated the expression of genes encoding for TGF-beta1 and T beta RI-III using RT-QPCR in patients with active and inactive UC and non-IBD controls. The localization and level of(More)
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of two major groups of hypolipemic drugs, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARalpha activators (fibrates), on the secretory function of T-lymphocytes in patients with primary type II dyslipidemia. Sixty-three patients with type IIa dyslipidemia were randomized to fluvastatin (40 mg daily; n = 33) or(More)
The problem of immune-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disorders (IBDs), still remains a significant clinical and therapeutic problem. Therefore, the tendency to search for safer and more effective methods of reducing their incidence and increasing the efficiency of therapy of this group of diseases is understandable. Recently, attention has(More)
Understanding mechanisms of spinal cord injury and repair requires a reliable experimental model. We have developed a new device that produces a partial damage of spinal cord white matter by means of a precisely adjusted stream of air applied under high pressure. This procedure is less invasive than standard contusion or compression models and does not(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO), both of which are produced by activated microglial cells, are involved in the neuropathogenesis of many diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). There is a need to develop drugs that inhibit neurotoxic processes in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the(More)