Krzysztof Kowalski

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Acute exposure to cold stress has been shown to impair short-term, or working, memory, which may be related to reduction in, or disruption of, sustained release of brain catecholamines. Administering a supplemental dose of the catecholamine precursor tyrosine may alleviate cold stress-induced memory impairments by preventing cold-induced deficits in brain(More)
Fos and Fos-related proteins are increased in spinal dorsal horn neurons following noxious stimulation. The laminar location of neurons that exhibit this increase is coincident with those that exhibit an increase in dynorphin in a rat model of peripheral inflammation and hyperalgesia. In order to determine whether the increase in Fos or related proteins and(More)
Only a few studies comparing flea composition on the coast and in the mountains have been conducted. We investigated differences in flea communities infesting small mammals in selected habitats in northern, central, and southern Poland. We predicted (1) a greater number of flea species in the southeastern Poland and a lower number in the north, (2) a(More)
Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) results in the generation of large positive airway pressures (Paw) and may be a useful method of restoring cough in patients with spinal cord injury. The purpose of the present study was to assess the mechanical contribution of individual respiratory muscles to pressure generation during SCS. In anesthetized(More)
Large positive airway pressures (Paws) can be generated by lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS), which may be a useful method of restoring cough in spinal cord-injured patients. Optimal electrode placement, however, requires an assessment of the pattern of current spread during SCS. Studies were performed in anesthetized dogs to assess the pattern(More)
Recognizing patterns of parasite distribution among wildlife hosts is of major importance due to growing risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. Thus, sex-dependent parasite distribution in higher vertebrates is extensively studied, and males are often found more parasitized than females. Male-biased parasitism may be the result of weaker(More)
Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be a useful method to restore an effective cough mechanism. In dogs, two groups of studies were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the expiratory muscle activation during stimulation at the T(9)-T(10) level, which results in the greatest changes in airway pressure. In one group, expiratory muscle(More)
Despite clinically available methods of diaphragm pacing, most patients with ventilator-dependent tetraplegia are still dependent on mechanical ventilation. Given the significant disadvantages of these devices, additional pacing options are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel and potentially more physiological method of inspiratory(More)
The spatial analysis of the potentials of single motor units of the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle evoked by stimulation of the fibres of split ventral roots was carried out with a bipolar electrode moving in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the muscle fibres. During this movement of the electrode a variability was observed in the(More)
As demonstrated in a canine model, high frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) is a novel and more physiologic method of electrical activation of the inspiratory muscles compared to current techniques. The dog model, however, has significant limitations due to cost and societal concerns. Since the rodent respiratory system is also a relevant model for(More)