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Large positive airway pressures (Paws) can be generated by lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS), which may be a useful method of restoring cough in spinal cord-injured patients. Optimal electrode placement, however, requires an assessment of the pattern of current spread during SCS. Studies were performed in anesthetized dogs to assess the pattern(More)
Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) results in the generation of large positive airway pressures (Paw) and may be a useful method of restoring cough in patients with spinal cord injury. The purpose of the present study was to assess the mechanical contribution of individual respiratory muscles to pressure generation during SCS. In anesthetized(More)
Despite clinically available methods of diaphragm pacing, most patients with ventilator-dependent tetraplegia are still dependent on mechanical ventilation. Given the significant disadvantages of these devices, additional pacing options are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel and potentially more physiological method of inspiratory(More)
As demonstrated in a canine model, high frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) is a novel and more physiologic method of electrical activation of the inspiratory muscles compared to current techniques. The dog model, however, has significant limitations due to cost and societal concerns. Since the rodent respiratory system is also a relevant model for(More)
Lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be a useful method to restore an effective cough mechanism. In dogs, two groups of studies were performed to evaluate the mechanism of the expiratory muscle activation during stimulation at the T(9)-T(10) level, which results in the greatest changes in airway pressure. In one group, expiratory muscle(More)
Following spinal cord injury, the expiratory muscles develop significant disuse atrophy characterized by reductions in their weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and force-generating capacity. We determined the extent to which these physiological alterations can be prevented with electrical stimulation. Because a critical function of the expiratory muscles(More)
In patients with diaphragm paralysis, ventilation to the basal lung zones is reduced, whereas in patients with paralysis of the rib cage muscles, ventilation to the upper lung zones in reduced. Inspiration produced by either rib cage muscle or diaphragm contraction alone, therefore, may result in mismatching of ventilation and perfusion and in gas-exchange(More)
High frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) is a novel and more physiologic method of inspiratory muscle activation which involves stimulation of spinal cord pathways. In the present study, we determined if activation of the inspiratory intercostal muscles alone by this technique could be utilized to maintain artificial ventilation. In 7 anesthetized(More)
In contrast to previous methods of electrical stimulation of the inspiratory muscles, high frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF-SCS) results in more physiological activation of these muscles. The spatial distribution of activation to the external intercostal muscles by this method is unknown. In anaesthetized dogs, multiunit and single motor unit (SMU) EMG(More)
Projections from the nucleus reticularis tegmenti (NRTP) pontis to the cerebellar paramedian lobule were studied using a horseradish peroxidase retrograde transport technique. The rabbit's NRTP consists of a medial principal part (the nucleus papillioformis: PLF) and smaller lateral part (the processus tegmentosus lateralis: PTL). The PLF can be subdivided(More)