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BACKGROUND High throughput sequencing has become an important technology for studying expression levels in many types of genomic, and particularly transcriptomic, data. One key way of analysing such data is to look for elements of the data which display particular patterns of differential expression in order to take these forward for further analysis and(More)
Most eukaryotes produce small RNA (sRNA) mediators of gene silencing that bind to Argonaute proteins and guide them, by base pairing, to an RNA target. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that normally target messenger RNAs for degradation or translational arrest are the best-understood class of sRNAs. However, in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers, miRNAs account for only 5% of(More)
Interest in the toxicological aspects of oxidative stress has grown in recent years, and research has become increasingly focused on the mechanistic aspects of oxidative damage and cellular responses in biological systems. Toxic consequences of oxidative stress at the subcellular level include lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA and proteins.(More)
Eukaryotic DNA cytosine methylation can be used to transcriptionally silence repetitive sequences, including transposons and retroviruses. This silencing is stable between cell generations as cytosine methylation is maintained epigenetically through DNA replication. The Arabidopsis thaliana Dnmt3 cytosine methyltransferase ortholog DOMAINS rearranged(More)
Argonaute (AGO) effectors of RNA silencing bind small RNA (sRNA) molecules and mediate mRNA cleavage, translational repression, or epigenetic DNA modification. In many organisms, these targeting mechanisms are devolved to different products of AGO multigene families. To investigate the basis of AGO functional diversification, we characterized three closely(More)
RNA silencing in plants and some animals has a non-cell-autonomous effect due to an RNA signal that moves between cells or organs. To identify unique factors involved in this process, we analyzed a group of Arabidopsis mutants with defective spread of RNA silencing from a transgene expressed specifically in the phloem. These mutants accumulated reduced(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed protozoan parasite that can infect virtually all warm-blooded animals and humans. Despite the existence of a sexual phase in the life cycle, T. gondii has an unusual population structure dominated by three clonal lineages that predominate in North America and Europe, (Types I, II, and III). These lineages were(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences. METHODS To better understand long-term effects and pathogenesis of this common, persistent brain infection, mice were infected at a time in human years equivalent to early to mid adulthood and studied 5-12 months later.(More)
Meiosis is a specialized eukaryotic cell division that generates haploid gametes required for sexual reproduction. During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover (CO). Meiotic CO frequency varies along the physical length of chromosomes and is determined by hierarchical mechanisms, including epigenetic(More)
Mechanisms of gene regulation are poorly understood in Apicomplexa, a phylum that encompasses deadly human pathogens like Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Initial studies suggest that epigenetic phenomena, including histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, have a profound effect upon gene expression and expression of virulence traits. Using the model(More)