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The 3D structure of the bacterial peptidoglycan, the major constituent of the cell wall, is one of the most important, yet still unsolved, structural problems in biochemistry. The peptidoglycan comprises alternating N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic disaccharide (NAM) saccharides, the latter of which has a peptide stem. Adjacent peptide stems(More)
Ferritins are the main iron storage proteins found in animals, plants, and bacteria. The capacity to store iron in ferritin is essential for life in mammals, but the mechanism by which cytosolic iron is delivered to ferritin is unknown. Human ferritins expressed in yeast contain little iron. Human poly (rC)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) increased the amount of(More)
Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 in 50,000 humans, is caused by decreased levels of the protein frataxin. Although frataxin is nuclear-encoded, it is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and necessary for proper regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Frataxin is required for the cellular production of(More)
Frataxin, a highly conserved protein found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is required for efficient regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Humans with a frataxin deficiency have the cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder Friedreich's ataxia, commonly resulting from a GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in the frataxin gene. While frataxin's specific(More)
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans has an arsenic resistance operon that is controlled by an As(III)-responsive transcriptional repressor, AfArsR, a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulators. AfArsR lacks the As(III) binding site of the ArsRs from plasmid R773 and Escherichia coli, which have a Cys(32)-Val-Cys(34)-Asp-Leu-Cys(37) sequence in the DNA(More)
Frataxin, a nuclear encoded protein targeted to the mitochondrial matrix, has recently been implicated as an iron chaperone that delivers Fe(II) to the iron-sulfur assembly enzyme ISU. During transport across the mitochondrial membrane, the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence of frataxin is cleaved in a two-step process to produce the "mature"(More)
The association of copper to Riboflavin Binding Protein (RBP) from egg white has been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The type II site contains a mix of copper I and II in an oxygen rich environment.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolate-769, human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PDB ID: 1TW7), was shown to exhibit wide-open flaps and an expanded active site cavity, causing loss of contacts with protease inhibitors. In the current study, the expanded active site cavity of MDR769 HIV-1 protease was screened with a series of(More)
Riboflavin Binding Protein (RBP) binds copper in a 1:1 molar ratio, forming a distinct well-ordered type II site. The nature of this site has been examined using X-ray absorption and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies, revealing a four coordinate oxygen/nitrogen rich environment. On the basis of analysis of the Cambridge Structural(More)