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Systemic administration of the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) results in increased secretion of ACTH and corticosterone in rats. The available evidence suggests that the acute effects of IL-1 are exerted ultimately at the level of the hypothalamus to increase corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) secretion into the hypophyseal portal circulation, and hence(More)
This article summarizes the achievements that have been accumulated about the role of c-Fos as a transcription factor and as a functional marker of activated neurons. Since its discovery, more than a decade ago, as an inducible immediate-early gene encoding a transcription factor, or third messenger, involved in stimulus-transcription coupling and mediation(More)
Immediate-early genes (IEG) are powerful tools for identifying activated neurosecretory neurones and extended circuits that affect neuroendocrine functions. The generally acknowledged scenario is when cells became activated, IEGs expressed and IEG-encoded transcription factors affect target gene expression. However, there are several examples in which: (i)(More)
Excitatory lateral connections within the primary visual cortex are thought to link neurons with similar receptive field properties. Here we studied whether this rule can predict the distribution of excitatory connections in relation to cortical location and orientation preference in the cat visual cortex. To this end, we obtained orientation maps of areas(More)
Immediate-early genes (IEGs) are widely used to mark endocrine hypothalamic neurons that are activated in response to stress, yet their relationship to the transcriptional control of relevant effector molecule expression is unclear. Acute ether stress provokes increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion that peaks at 5 and 30(More)
To identify molecular targets of corticosteroid negative feedback effects on neurosecretory neurons comprising the central limb of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we monitored ether stress effects on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) expression in rats that were intact or(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with highly potent neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. PACAP and its receptors occur in the retina and PACAP has been applied in animal models of metabolic retinal disorders to reduce structural and functional damage. Furthermore, PACAP has been implicated as a potential(More)
Descriptions of the central distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) have been taken as generally supporting the proposition that this neuropeptide is involved in the mediation of complementary neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioural responses to stress. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is recognized as the principal source of(More)
The promoter regions of the rat corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin (OT), and vasopressin (AVP) genes contain sequences similar to the cis-acting response element identified for NGFI-B, an immediate-early gene structurally related to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. Combined immuno- and hybridization histochemical approaches were used to(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with well-known cytoprotective effects. We have reported earlier that PACAP decreases mortality and the degree of tubular atrophy in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, we have shown that kidney cultures isolated from PACAP deficient mice show increased(More)