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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We tested whether volatile anesthetics induce neuroprotection that is maintained for a prolonged time. METHODS Rats were pretreated for 3 hours with 1 minimal anesthetic concentration of isoflurane or halothane in normal air (anesthetic preconditioning [AP]). The animals were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cellular response to hypoxia is mainly controlled by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The HIF-1 target gene erythropoietin (EPO) has been described as neuroprotective. Thus, we hypothesize EPO to be an essential mediator of protection in hypoxic preconditioning. METHODS We randomized Sv129 mice into groups for different(More)
We applied serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to study differentially expressed genes in mouse brain 14 hr after the induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Analysis of >60,000 transcripts revealed 83 upregulated and 94 downregulated transcripts (more than or equal to eightfold). Reproducibility was demonstrated by performing SAGE in duplicate on the(More)
Endogenous tolerance to cerebral ischemia is nature's strategy for neuroprotection. Exploring the physiologic and molecular mechanism of this phenomenon may give us new means of protection against ischemia and other degenerative disorders. This article reviews the currently available experimental methods to induce ischemic tolerance in the brain and gives a(More)
We here demonstrate that general anesthesia with isoflurane can have profound effects on the brain of mice long after the anesthetic has been discontinued. Three hours of exposure to 1% isoflurane induced rapid and longlasting protection against 60 min transient focal cerebral ischemia induced by filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Mean(More)
A direct involvement of the antioxidant enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in neuroprotection has not yet been shown. The aim of this study was to examine changes, localization and role of NQO1 after different neuronal injury paradigms. In primary cultures of rat cortex the activity of NQO1 was measured after treatment with ethylcholine(More)
Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a powerful method for large-scale analysis of gene expression patterns. SAGE yields digital information on transcript abundance by the use of short sequence fragments (tags). Because SAGE does not require a priori knowledge of the expressed genes in the starting material, SAGE can be used for gene discovery.(More)
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