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The emergence of chronic inflammation during obesity in the absence of overt infection or well-defined autoimmune processes is a puzzling phenomenon. The Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of innate immune cell sensors, such as the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (Nlrp3, but also known as Nalp3 or cryopyrin)(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution is linked to central nervous system disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES Here, we sought to address the brain-region-specific effects of diesel exhaust (DE) and key cellular mechanisms underlying DE-induced microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity. METHODS(More)
The levels of different reactive species, especially those of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat tissues, before the development of histopathological damages. Significantly higher steady state free radical concentrations were found in the liver 3 weeks after the onset of diabetes compared to age-matched(More)
Although diabetes is mainly diagnosed based on elevated glucose levels, dyslipidemia is also observed in these patients. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a frequent occurrence in patients with diabetes, is associated with major abnormalities in circulating lipoproteins and renal lipid metabolism. At baseline, most renal epithelial cells rely on fatty acids as(More)
UNLABELLED The effect and possible mechanisms of action of aminoguanidine (a preferential iNOS inhibitor) has been studied on cardiovascular damages and overproduction of reactive nitrogen species in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS 40 rats were divided into five groups (control and diabetic, with or without aminoguanidine(More)
Albuminuria is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. It correlates with the progression of chronic kidney disease, particularly with tubular atrophy. The fatty acid load on albumin significantly increases in obesity, presenting a proinflammatory environment to the proximal tubules. However, little is known about changes in the redox milieu during(More)
Free radical production is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, where several pathways and different mechanisms were suggested in the pathophysiology of the complications. In this study, we used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy combined with in vivo spin-trapping techniques to investigate the sources and mechanisms of free(More)
The physiological effects of nitroglycerin as a potent vasodilator have long been documented. However, the molecular mechanisms by which nitroglycerin exerts its biological functions are still a matter of intense debate. Enzymatic pathways converting nitroglycerin to vasoactive compounds have been identified, but none of them seems to fully account for the(More)
Oxidative stress and diabetes, both Type 1 and Type 2 as well as their related conditions have been extensively studied. As diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome have reached at epidemic levels, there is a huge need and effort to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms of the possible redox imbalance, underlying the cause of pathology and(More)
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk for several diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy and chronic kidney diseases. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are often proposed mechanisms in various organs in obesity models, but limited data are available on the kidney. Here, we fed a lard-based high-fat(More)