Kristy A. Horan

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The detection of intracellular microbial DNA is critical to appropriate innate immune responses; however, knowledge of how such DNA is sensed is limited. Here we identify IFI16, a PYHIN protein, as an intracellular DNA sensor that mediates the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β). IFI16 directly associated with IFN-β-inducing viral DNA motifs. STING, a(More)
Advances in innate immunity over the past decade have revealed distinct classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect pathogens at the cell surface and in intracellular compartments. This has shed light on how herpesviruses, which are large disease-causing DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, are initially recognized during cellular(More)
BACKGROUND Innate immune responses have recently been appreciated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection. Whereas inadequate innate immune sensing of HIV during acute infection may contribute to failure to control and eradicate infection, persistent inflammatory responses later during infection contribute in driving chronic immune(More)
Phosphoinositides are membrane-bound signalling molecules that regulate cell proliferation and survival, cytoskeletal reorganization and vesicular trafficking by recruiting effector proteins to cellular membranes. Growth factor or insulin stimulation induces a canonical cascade resulting in the transient phosphorylation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) by PI3K(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial secondary messengers of signaling pathways. Redox-dependent signaling events have been previously described in the innate immune response. However, the mechanism by which ROS modulates anti-viral innate immune signaling is not fully clarified. Here, we report that mitochondria-derived ROS differentially regulate the(More)
The innate immune system senses infection by detecting either evolutionarily conserved molecules essential for the survival of microbes or the abnormal location of molecules. Here we demonstrate the existence of a previously unknown innate detection mechanism induced by fusion between viral envelopes and target cells. Virus-cell fusion specifically(More)
Phosphoinositide signals regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and intracellular trafficking. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases regulates synaptic vesicle recycling (synaptojanin-1), hematopoietic cell function [SHIP1(SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate(More)
The innate immune response constitutes the first line of defense against infections. Pattern recognition receptors recognize pathogen structures and trigger intracellular signaling pathways leading to cytokine and chemokine expression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as an important regulator of some of these pathways. ROS directly interact with(More)
The innate immune system is important for control of infections, including herpesvirus infections. Intracellular DNA potently stimulates antiviral IFN responses. It is known that plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense herpesvirus DNA in endosomes via TLR9 and that nonimmune tissue cells can sense herpesvirus DNA in the nucleus. However, it remains unknown how(More)
Autophagy has been established as a player in host defense against viruses. The mechanisms by which the host induces autophagy during infection are diverse. In the case of HSV type 1 (HSV-1), dsRNA-dependent protein kinase is essential for induction of autophagy in fibroblasts through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). HSV-1(More)