Kristopher G. Maier

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Sepsis and hemorrhage can result in injury to multiple organs and is associated with an extremely high rate of mortality. We hypothesized that peritoneal negative pressure therapy (NPT) would reduce systemic inflammation and organ damage. Pigs (n = 12) were anesthetized and surgically instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring. Through a laparotomy, the(More)
Recent studies indicate that arachidonic acid is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes of the 4A and 2C families in the kidney to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. These compounds play central roles in the regulation of renal tubular and vascular function. 20-HETE is(More)
OBJECTIVES Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular glycoprotein released from platelets at sites of arterial injury and is important in neointima development after balloon angioplasty. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that function by binding target gene mRNA and inhibiting protein translation. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is up-regulated after angioplasty,(More)
This study examined the effects of blocking the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) on the acute fall in cerebral blood flow after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the rat. In vehicle-treated rats, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry fell by 30% 10 min after the injection of 0.3 ml of arterial blood(More)
BACKGROUND Although many sepsis treatments have shown efficacy in acute animal models, at present only activated protein C is effective in humans. The likely reason for this discrepancy is that most of the animal models used for preclinical testing do not accurately replicate the complex pathogenesis of human sepsis. Our objective in this study was to(More)
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA-reductase) inhibitors, otherwise known as statins, are currently the medical treatment of choice for hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and statin therapy has led to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality from adverse cardiac(More)
OBJECTIVE Diabetes is associated with a more aggressive form of atherosclerosis. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an extracellular matrix protein, is an acute-phase reactant that induces vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) migration and proliferation in areas of vascular injury and is also up-regulated in VSMCs exposed to hyperglycemia. This study tested the hypothesis(More)
The present study evaluated whether reactive oxygen species-induced alterations in bioavailability of 20-HETE in the kidney contribute to the antihypertensive and renoprotective actions of antioxidant therapy with Tempol in the Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rat. Superoxide inhibited the synthesis of 20-HETE by renal cortical microsomes and enhanced breakdown of(More)
The present study examined the effects of ANG II on the renal synthesis of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) and its contribution to the renal vasoconstrictor and the acute and chronic pressor effects of ANG II in rats. ANG II (10(-11) to 10(-7) mol/l) reduced the diameter of renal interlobular arteries treated with inhibitors of nitric oxide(More)
The pressure-natriuresis relationship is shifted to higher pressures in genetic and experimental models of hypertension; however, the factors responsible for altering kidney function remain to be determined. In spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Lyon hypertensive rats, the resetting of pressure-natriuresis results from increased preglomerular renal(More)