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BACKGROUND A method has been developed to estimate a fitness landscape experienced by HIV-1 under treatment selective pressure as a function of the genotypic sequence thereby also estimating the genetic barrier to resistance. METHODS We evaluated the performance of two estimated fitness landscapes (nelfinavir [NFV] and zidovudine [AZT] plus lamivudine(More)
Understanding HIV-1 subtype distribution and epidemiology can assist preventive measures and clinical decisions. Sequence variation may affect antiviral drug resistance development, disease progression, evolutionary rates and transmission routes. We investigated the subtype distribution of HIV-1 in Europe and Israel in a representative sample of patients(More)
The HIV pandemic is characterized by extensive genetic variability, which has challenged the development of HIV drugs and vaccines. Although HIV genomes have been classified into different types, groups, subtypes and recombinants, a comprehensive study that maps HIV genome-wide diversity at the population level is still lacking to date. This study aims to(More)
SUMMARY RegaDB is a free and open source data management and analysis environment for infectious diseases. RegaDB allows clinicians to store, manage and analyse patient data, including viral genetic sequences. Moreover, RegaDB provides researchers with a mechanism to collect data in a uniform format and offers them a canvas to make newly developed(More)
HIV-1 Gag amino acid substitutions associated with protease inhibitor (PI) treatment have mainly been reported in subtype B, while information on other subtypes is scarce. Using sequences from 11613 patients infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, we evaluated the prevalence of 93 Gag amino acid substitutions and their association with genotypic PI(More)
Treatment with pan-genotypic direct-acting antivirals, targeting different viral proteins, is the best option for clearing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronically infected patients. However, the diversity of the HCV genome is a major obstacle for the development of antiviral drugs, vaccines, and genotyping assays. In this large-scale analysis,(More)
A better understanding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug-resistance evolution under the selective pressure of combination treatment is important for the design of long-term effective treatment strategies. We applied Bayesian network learning to sequences from patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor combination of zidovudine (AZT)(More)
Despite improvements in HIV treatment, the prevalence of multidrug resistance and full class resistance is still reported to be increasing. However, to investigate whether current treatment strategies are still selecting for multidrug and full class resistance, the incidence, instead of the prevalence, is more informative. Temporal trends in multidrug(More)
BACKGROUND Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. METHODS Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed(More)
Subtype-dependent selection of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resistance mutation K65R was previously observed in cell culture and small clinical investigations. We compared K65R prevalence across subtypes A, B, C, F, G, and CRF02_AG separately in a cohort of 3,076 patients on combination therapy including tenofovir. K65R selection was significantly higher in(More)