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Identification of reducing conditions in soils is of concern not only for pedogenesis but also for nutrient and pollutant dynamics. We manufactured manganese (Mn)-oxide-coated polyvinyl chloride bars and proved their suitability for the identification of reducing soil conditions. Birnessite was synthesized and coated onto white polyvinyl chloride bars. The(More)
Characterization of the soil redox status is important for pedogenesis but simple field methods for monitoring are limited. Recently, we introduced manganese (MnIII,IV) oxide-coated redox bars as an indicator for reducing conditions in soils. In this study, we compared these redox bars with well-established iron (FeIII) oxide-coated bars. For a 5-month(More)
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