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Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neurophysiological treatment for patients with medically or surgically refractory epilepsy. Since the first human implant in 1989, more than 10 000 patients have been treated with VNS. Two randomized controlled studies have shown a statistically significant decrease in seizure frequency during a 12-week treatment period(More)
PURPOSE Despite different treatment options for patients with refractory epilepsy such as epilepsy surgery and neurostimulation, many patients still have seizures and/or drug-related cerebral and systemic side effects. Local intracerebral delivery of antiepileptic compounds may represent a novel strategy with specific advantages such as the option of higher(More)
OBJECTIVE Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are epilepsy-like episodes which have an emotional rather than organic origin. Although PNES have often been related to the process of dissociation, the psychopathology is still poorly understood. To elucidate underlying mechanisms, the current study applied independent component analysis (ICA) on(More)
Our aim was to put together and test a comprehensive functional MRI (fMRI) protocol which could compete with the intracarotid amytal (IAT) or Wada test for the localisation of language and memory function in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. The protocol was designed to be performed in under 1 h on a standard 1.5 tesla imager. We used five(More)
Local delivery of compounds directly into the brain may become an attractive treatment option for several neurological diseases. Higher therapeutic drug levels may be reached at the targeted brain region and in this way systemic side effects avoided. This paper provides an overview of the currently investigated experimental and clinical local delivery(More)
PURPOSE This study assesses the use of the serial day Rapid Kindling with Recurrent Hippocampal Seizures (RKRHS) model in drug testing by investigating the anti-epileptic effect of levetiracetam (LEV), a novel anti-epileptic drug (AED) with a unique preclinical profile. METHODS Male Wistar rats (n=16) were implanted with a stimulation/recording electrode(More)
PURPOSE In Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), age-related absence seizures start to appear from postnatal day (PN) 30 concomitant with 'spike and wave discharges' (SWDs) appearing on cortical EEG recordings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early chronic levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the development of SWDs in(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective neurophysiological treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy, however, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) permits the monitoring of biochemical processes during multiple scans in the same animal. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the potential(More)
Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is proposed as an experimental treatment for refractory epilepsy, but the optimal stimulation parameters are undetermined. High frequency hippocampal DBS at 130Hz is effective in both animals and patients with epilepsy. Low frequency stimulation (approximately 5Hz) is assumed to have anti-epileptic properties but the(More)
RATIONALE The goal of this study is to analyze initial slow waves (ISWs) at seizure onset in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. ISWs are a specific type of ictal EEG pattern characterized by a slow wave at the seizure onset followed by low voltage fast activity. METHODS Investigations were carried out on 14 patients from the UCLA hospital(More)