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During the development of peripheral nerves, neural crest cells generate myelinating and non-myelinating glial cells in a process that parallels gliogenesis from the germinal layers of the CNS. Unlike central gliogenesis, neural crest development involves a protracted embryonic phase devoted to the generation of, first, the Schwann cell precursor and then(More)
We show that beta forms of Neu differentiation factor (NDF), homologous to acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity, glial growth factor, and heregulin, prevent apoptotic death and stimulate DNA synthesis of the E14 Schwann cell precursor, an early cell in the rat Schwann cell lineage. When precursors are exposed to NDF in defined medium, they generate(More)
We have characterized a cell, the Schwann cell precursor, that represents a distinct intermediate differentiation stage in the process by which Schwann cells are generated from neural crest cells. The Schwann cell precursor shows radical differences from Schwann cells which include death regulation, antigenic phenotype, pattern of cell-cell interaction,(More)
Previously we proposed that Schwann cell development from the neural crest is a two-step process that involves the generation of one main intermediate cell type, the Schwann cell precursor. Until now Schwann cell precursors have only been identified in the rat, and much remains to be learned about these cells and how they generate Schwann cells. Here we(More)
The present experiments were designed to clarify the relationship between cAMP elevation, proliferation and differentiation in Schwann cells. They were carried out on short-term cultures of cells obtained from neonatal rat sciatic nerves. It was found that the myelin-related phenotype was expressed in response to agents that elevate or mimic intracellular(More)
Dedifferentiation of myelinating Schwann cells is a key feature of nerve injury and demyelinating neuropathies. We review recent evidence that this dedifferentiation depends on activation of specific intracellular signaling molecules that drive the dedifferentiation program. In particular, we discuss the idea that Schwann cells contain negative(More)
Schwann cell myelination depends on Krox-20/Egr2 and other promyelin transcription factors that are activated by axonal signals and control the generation of myelin-forming cells. Myelin-forming cells remain remarkably plastic and can revert to the immature phenotype, a process which is seen in injured nerves and demyelinating neuropathies. We report that(More)
Although Schwann cell precursors from early embryonic nerves die in the absence of axonal signals, Schwann cells in older nerves can survive in the absence of axons in the distal stump of transected nerves. This is crucially important, because successful axonal regrowth in a damaged nerve depends on interactions with living Schwann cells in the denervated(More)
Immunohistochemical methods are used to investigate in detail the development and regulation of three proteins (217c(Ran-1), A5E3 and GFAP) specifically associated with adult non-myelin-forming Schwann cells in the rat sciatic nerve, from embryo day 15 to maturity. 217c(Ran-1), which is probably the NGF-receptor, and A5E3 are expressed by the majority of(More)
It is becoming ever clearer that Schwann cells and Schwann-cell precursors are an important source of developmental signals in embryonic and neonatal nerves. This article reviews experiments showing that these signals regulate the survival and differentiation of other cells in early nerves. The evidence indicates that glial-derived signals are necessary for(More)