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The factors necessary to maintain organ-specific progenitor cells are poorly understood and yet of extreme clinical importance. Here, we identify the transcription factor SOX9 as the first specific marker and maintenance factor of multipotential progenitors during pancreas organogenesis. In the developing pancreas, SOX9 expression is restricted to a(More)
Little is known about the cues controlling the generation of motoneuron populations in the mammalian ventral midbrain. We show that Otx2 provides the crucial anterior-posterior positional information for the generation of red nucleus neurons in the murine midbrain. Moreover, the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6-1 controls the proper development of the(More)
All mature pancreatic cell types arise from organ-specific multipotent progenitor cells. Although previous studies have identified cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues for progenitor cell expansion, it is unclear how these cues are integrated within the niche of the developing organ. Here, we present genetic evidence in mice that the transcription factor Sox9(More)
The molecular mechanisms that underlie cell lineage diversification of multipotent progenitors in the pancreas are virtually unknown. Here we show that the early fate choice of pancreatic progenitors between the endocrine and acinar cell lineage is restricted by cross-repressive interactions between the transcription factors Nkx6.1/Nkx6.2 (Nkx6) and Ptf1a.(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer tremendous potential for not only treating neurological disorders but also for their ability to serve as vital reagents to model and investigate human disease. To further our understanding of a key protein involved in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis, we stably overexpressed amyloid precursor protein (APP) in hESCs.(More)
We have previously shown the transcription factor SOX9 to be required for the maintenance of multipotential pancreatic progenitor cells in the early embryonic pancreas. However, the association of pancreatic endocrine defects with the Sox9-haploinsufficiency syndrome campomelic dysplasia (CD) implies additional later roles for Sox9 in endocrine development.(More)
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are traditionally maintained and proliferated utilizing two-dimensional (2D) adherent monolayer culture systems. However, NPCs cultured using this system hardly reflect the intrinsic spatial development of brain tissue. In this study, we determined that culturing(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex disorder that involves numerous cellular and subcellular alterations including impairments in mitochondrial homeostasis. To better understand the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD, we analyzed brains from clinically well-characterized human subjects and from the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD. We find(More)
The future hope of generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from Alzheimer's disease patients is multifold. Firstly, they may help to uncover novel mechanisms of the disease, which could lead to the development of new and unprecedented drugs for patients and secondly, they could also be directly used for screening and testing of potential new(More)
Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a 46-year-old symptomatic man carrying a M146I mutation in the presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1), responsible for causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were derived via transfection with episomal vectors carrying hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF2, hL-MYC, hLIN28 and shTP53 genes. M146I-iPSCs were free of(More)