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Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) initiates smooth muscle contraction and regulates actomyosin-based cytoskeletal functions in nonmuscle cells. The net extent of RLC phosphorylation is controlled by MLCK activity relative to myosin light chain phosphatase activity. We(More)
Excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release in smooth and cardiac muscles is mediated by the L-type Ca(2+) channel isoform Ca(v)1.2 and the ryanodine receptor isoform RyR2. Although physical coupling between Ca(v)1.1 and RyR1 in skeletal muscle is well established, it is generally assumed that Ca(v)1.2 and RyR2 do not directly(More)
RATIONALE Mutations in myosin heavy chain (MYH11) cause autosomal dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. At the same time, rare, nonsynonymous variants in MYH11 that are predicted to disrupt protein function but do not cause inherited aortic disease are common in the general population and the vascular disease risk associated(More)
Urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction is triggered by parasympathetic nerves, which release ATP and acetylcholine (ACh) that bind to purinergic and muscarinic receptors, respectively. Neuronal signalling may thus elicit myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation and contraction through the combined, but distinct contributions of these(More)
During skeletal muscle contraction, NO derived from neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in skeletal muscle fibers or from endothelial cells (eNOS) may relax vascular smooth muscle contributing to functional hyperemia. To examine the relative importance of these pathways, smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain (smRLC) phosphorylation was assessed as(More)
For many years the simple view was held that contractile force in smooth muscle was proportional to cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). With the discovery that phosphorylation of myosin light chain by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase initiated contraction, regulation of the contractile elements developed more complex properties.(More)
Contraction and myosin light-chain phosphorylation were measured in electrically stimulated tracheal smooth muscle. Latencies for the onset of force, stiffness, and light-chain phosphorylation were 500 milliseconds. Myosin light chain was phosphorylated from 0.04 to 0.80 mole of phosphate per mole of light chain with a pseudo-first-order rate of 1.1 per(More)
PURPOSE To assess the mechanical ability of the inferior oblique neurofibrovascular bundle (NFVB) to act as an ancillary origin for the inferior oblique muscle after anterior transposition. METHODS Stress-strain relations and Young's modulus of elasticity, a measure of tissue stiffness, were determined for the NFVB in vitro, in situ, and in vivo in(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of ErbB2/4 receptor tyrosine kinases in cardiomyocytes by neuregulin treatment is associated with improvement in cardiac function, supporting its use in human patients with heart failure despite the lack of a specific mechanism. Neuregulin infusion in rodents increases cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) expression and cardiac(More)
Carotid arteries from control and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) hypertensive swine were examined for alterations in structure and in contractile properties. Vessels were excised 7 weeks after subcutaneous implantation of the steroid and subsequent elevation in mean arterial pressure from 102 to 133 mm Hg. The carotid media was 1.8 times thicker in(More)