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There exists a striking gender difference in atherosclerotic vascular disease. For decades, estrogen was considered atheroprotective; however, an alternative is that androgen exposure in early life may predispose men to earlier atherosclerosis. We recently demonstrated that the potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), enhanced the binding of monocytes to(More)
A novel gene, thyroid cancer 1 (TC-1), was found recently to be overexpressed in thyroid cancer. TC-1 shows no homology to any of the known thyroid cancer-associated genes. We have produced stable transformants of normal thyroid cells that express the TC-1 gene, and these cells show increased proliferation rates and anchorage-independent growth in soft(More)
The results of transplantation of human donor islets into the portal vein (PV) in patients with diabetes are encouraging. However, there are complications, for example, hemorrhage, thrombosis and an immediate loss of islets through the 'instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction' (IBMIR). The gastric submucosal space (GSMS) offers potential advantages.(More)
Mounting evidence suggests that in men, serum levels of testosterone are negatively correlated to cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We studied the role of androgens in angiogenesis, a process critical in cardiovascular repair/regeneration, in males and females. Androgen exposure augmented key angiogenic events in vitro. Strikingly, this occurred in(More)
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to determine whether nitroglycerin (NTG) treatment affects matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene expression and activities in human macrophages. BACKGROUND Nitroglycerin is one of the most frequently used therapeutic agents for the symptomatic relief of stable or unstable coronary artery disease; however, its effects on vascular(More)
Diabetes is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Hyperglycemia is an underlying contributing factor; however, the mechanisms that mediate the vascular complications are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we provide evidence that elevated glucose induces discordant matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression from two key vascular cells,(More)
Removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the bloodstream via reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a process of major biological importance. Here we demonstrate that lymphatic drainage is required for RCT. We have previously shown that hypercholesterolemia in mice is associated with impaired lymphatic drainage and increased lipid accumulation in(More)
Obesity-induced liver inflammation can drive insulin resistance. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, so we hypothesized that low levels of HDL would perpetuate inflammatory responses in the liver and that HDL treatment would suppress liver inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lipid-free apoAI on(More)
Anti-convulsant treatment is associated with a high prevalence of reproductive dysfunction compared with age-matched non-epileptics. We examined the widely used anti-convulsants valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) for steroidal bioactivity using a yeast-based steroid receptor-beta-galactosidase reporter assay for the androgen receptor (AR), progesterone(More)
Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) was recently identified as a novel steroid used illicitly to improve athletic performance. Although its structure is closely related to gestrinone, a 19-nor progestin, and resembles that of trenbolone, THG was never marketed, so information on its hormonal properties is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that THG is a highly(More)