Kristina M. Miller

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Balancing selection maintains high levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity in genes of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) of vertebrate organisms, and promotes long evolutionary persistence of individual alleles and strongly differentiated allelic lineages. In this study, genetic variation at the MHC class II DAB-β1 locus was examined in 31(More)
The DNA sequences of four exons of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) were examined in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from an interior (Nechako River) and a coastal (Harrison River) population in the Fraser River drainage of British Columbia. Mhc class I A1, A2 and A3 sequences and a class II B1 sequence were obtained by PCR from each of(More)
Three MHC class I genes have been characterized in salmonids: A, B, and UA. Levels of polymorphism vary among the genes, but they all share one common feature: a lack of sequence diversity. Although individual species can carry over 30 alleles at a given locus (A), intraspecific diversity is generally less than 5% in Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus), and(More)
Polymorphism of the nucleotide sequences encoding 149 amino acids of linked major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II 131 and 132 peptides, and of the intervening intron (548–773 base pairs), was examined within and among seven Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) species. Levels of nucleotide diversity were higher for theB1 sequence than forB2 or the intron(More)
An unprecedented level of sequence diversity has been maintained in the salmonid major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I UBA gene, with between lineage AA sequence identities as low as 34%. The derivation of deep allelic lineages may have occurred through interlocus exon shuffling or convergence of ancient loci with the UBA locus, but until recently,(More)
Geographic variation at an Mhc class I A1 exon was surveyed in 14 populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 15 populations of chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) inhabiting rivers of British Columbia, Canada. A total of 2,504 fish were sampled using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which distinguished 17 alleles in coho salmon and 20(More)
Long-term population viability of Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is threatened by unusually high levels of mortality as they swim to their spawning areas before they spawn. Functional genomic studies on biopsied gill tissue from tagged wild adults that were tracked through ocean and river environments revealed physiological profiles(More)
We describe a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of nucleotide sequence variation that can be used for large-scale screening of population markers. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) detects sequence variants of amplified fragments by the differences in their melting behavior. DGGE detects most single-base substitutions when carried(More)
In vertebrates, variability at genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) represents an important adaptation for pathogen resistance, whereby high allelic diversity confers resistance to a greater number of pathogens. Pathogens can maintain diversifying selection pressure on their host's immune system that can vary in intensity based on pathogen(More)