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This review examines the use of Caco-2 monolayers in the prediction of intestinal drug absorption. First, the different routes of drug transport in Caco-2 monolayers are compared with those seen in vivo. Second, the prediction of drug absorption in vivo from transport experiments in cell monolayers is discussed for different classes of drugs. Finally, the(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate whether easily calculated and comprehended molecular surface properties can predict drug solubility and permeability with sufficient accuracy to allow theoretical absorption classification of drug molecules. For this purpose, structurally diverse, orally administered model drugs were selected from the World Health(More)
PURPOSE To devise experimental and computational models to predict aqueous drug solubility. METHODS A simple and reliable modification of the shake flask method to a small-scale format was devised, and the intrinsic solubilities of 17 structurally diverse drugs were determined. The experimental solubility data were used to investigate the accuracy of(More)
Contact allergy is caused by a wide range of chemicals after skin contact. Its clinical manifestation, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), is developed upon repeated contact with the allergen. This perspective focuses on two areas that have yielded new useful information during the last 20 years: (i) structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of contact(More)
Because of regulatory constraints and ethical considerations, research on alternatives to animal testing to predict the skin sensitization potential of novel chemicals has become a high priority. Ideally, these alternatives should not only predict the hazard of novel chemicals but also rate the potency of skin sensitizers. Currently, no alternative method(More)
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) family is composed of a large group of monooxygenases that mediate the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. CYP2C9, one of the major isoforms of the CYP family, is responsible for the phase I metabolism of a variety of drugs. The aim of the present investigation is to use rational design together with MetaSite, a(More)
Metabolic activation of inherently nonprotein-reactive compounds (prohaptens) in the skin can lead to development of contact allergy, a chronic skin disease. The prohapten hypothesis has existed for more than 20 years; yet, detailed knowledge regarding the mechanisms of activation as well as what structural moieties can be transformed to protein-reactive(More)
PURPOSE A theoretical method has been devised for prediction of drug absorption after oral administration to humans. METHODS Twenty structurally diverse model drugs, ranging from 0.3 to 100% absorbed, were investigated. The compounds also displayed diversity in physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, hydrogen bonding potential and molecular(More)
The correlation between dynamic surface properties of drug molecules and drug absorption in two common in vitro models of the intestinal wall (Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal segments) has been investigated. A homologous series of beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists were used as model compounds. Dynamic molecular surface properties, considering all(More)
The aim of this study was to devise experimental protocols and computational models for the prediction of intestinal drug permeability. Both the required experimental and computational effort and the accuracy and quality of the resulting predictions were considered. In vitro intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer permeabilities were determined both in a highly(More)