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Industrial networks based on IEEE 802.15.4 are spreading, even though the joint requirement on predictability and reliability from industrial applications is hard to fulfil in wireless networks, and the data rate of IEEE 802.15.4 is rather low. With the goal of providing real-time guarantees, with increased reliability and throughput, we propose two(More)
Employing wireless communication in industrial applications requires methods that deal with the high fraction of packet errors common to wireless transmissions. At the same time, industrial applications have real-time demands that protocols like TCP are unable to support. This paper combines ARQ (automatic repeat request) with real-time worst-case(More)
As the number of application areas for wireless technologies grows, the need for providing both predictable and reliable communication over wireless networks becomes apparent. Cooperative embedded systems for industrial automation are one example of systems with these needs. Previously, we developed a framework for reliable real-time communication in a(More)
BK virus (BKV) infection represents a serious complication in renal transplant patients resulting in BKV-associated nephropathy and subsequent allograft loss. Natural killer cells are crucial in the antiviral immune response; however, an understanding of the role of natural killer cells in protection against BKV is limited. To elucidate whether killer-cell(More)
BACKGROUND The polymorphic family of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) consists of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed by natural killer (NK) cells and effector T cells that recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands. It has been suggested that KIR/HLA incompatibility exerts beneficial effects in hematopoietic stem cell(More)
Increased mobility coupled with a possible reduction of cabling costs and deployment time makes wireless communication an attractive alternative for the automation industry and related application areas. Methods compensating for the high probability of bit errors accompanying wireless transmissions are, however, needed. This is predominantly important in(More)
T cell depleting strategies are an integral part of immunosuppressive regimens widely used in the hematological and solid organ transplant setting. Although it is known to induce lymphocytopenia, little is known about the effects of the polyclonal rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) or the monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab on Natural Killer (NK)(More)
Cooperative driving in platooning applications has received much attention lately due to its potential to lower fuel consumption and improve safety and efficiency on our roads. However, the recently adopted standard for vehicular communication, IEEE 802.11p, fails to support the level of reliability and real-time properties required by highly(More)
BACKGROUND In renal transplantation, allograft biopsies provide valuable diagnostic information indicating adverse allograft outcome posttransplantation. To uncover novel candidate markers characteristic of subtle inflammation and immune activation present during the intraoperative period, we investigated messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression profiles in(More)
This paper presents a framework for how to use ARQ (automatic repeat request) in combination with real-time worst-case scheduling analysis to be able to support reliable hard real-time communication. We show how to handle retransmissions of erroneous data packets, while still not jeopardizing stated delay guarantees of other packets. We demonstrate this by(More)