Kristina Kowal

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Explicit learning is well known to decline with age, but divergent results have been reported for implicit learning. Here, we assessed the effect of aging on implicit vs. explicit learning within the same task. Fifty-five young (mean 32 years) and 55 elderly (mean 64 years) individuals were exposed to letter strings generated by an artificial grammar.(More)
Time estimates of 1 1/2-, 5¼-, and 14 1/2-min intervals were obtained from 12 American graduate students and 12 Indian graduate students by the methods of verbal estimation and cross-modality matching. Material presented during stimulus intervals varied in degree of meaningfulness. Each subject was tested on 4 successive days with basically the same(More)
Time estimates of 12 intervals of 15 to 65 sec. duration were obtained from 30 subjects by one of two methods, magnitude estimation and cross-modal matching. Three kinds of sequences of musical notes were presented during stimulus intervals; repetitive, melodic, and random. Within all sequences, notes were of equal duration and with equal pauses between(More)
The intramodal range effect (an inverse relationship between stimulus range and exponent in Stevens's power law) has been well documented, but its conditions have not been tested. Both the estimates of stimulus magnitudes and their exponents are affected by context, stimulus location, and different standards and moduli, but how these variables might(More)
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