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Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200 million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis(More)
Activated glia, as a result of chronic inflammation, are associated with amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) deposits in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In vitro, glia are activated by Abeta inducing secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules. Recent studies have focused on soluble oligomers (or protofibrils) of Abeta as the toxic species in AD. In(More)
Galanin is a 29-amino-acid peptide expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones and spinal dorsal horn neurones. It affects pain threshold and has developmental and trophic effects. Galanin acts at three G-protein-coupled receptors, galanin receptors (GalR1-3), each expressed in the DRGs as suggested by in situ hybridization and/or reverse(More)
Galanin overexpressing transgenic mice (GAL-tg) were generated on two different promoters. Both lines of GAL-tg displayed high levels of galanin in the hippocampus and reduced sensitivity to seizures, as compared to their respective wildtype littermate controls (WT). Performance deficits on learning and memory tasks, impaired long-term potentiation, reduced(More)
The distribution of galanin mRNA-expressing cells and galanin-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies and processes was studied in the brain of mice overexpressing galanin under the PDGF-B promoter (GalOE mice) and of wild type (WT) mice, both in colchicine-treated and non-treated animals. In this abstract, we only describe the results in GalOE mouse. A widespread(More)
Basal and forced swimming (FS) stress-induced release of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) were determined by in vivo microdialysis in the ventral hippocampus of mice overexpressing galanin under the platelet-derived growth factor B promoter (GalOE/P) or under the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter (GalOE/D) (only NA). WT mice served as controls.(More)
OBJECTIVE Temperature and nutrient homeostasis are two interdependent components of energy balance regulated by distinct sets of hypothalamic neurons. The objective is to examine the role of the metabolic signal insulin in the control of core body temperature (CBT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The effect of preoptic area administration of insulin on CBT(More)
Insult to the central nervous system (CNS) induces many changes, including altered neurotransmitter expression, activation of astrocytes and microglia, neurogenesis and cell death. Cytokines and growth factors are candidates to be involved in astrocyte and microglial activation, and the up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is associated(More)