Kristina Conrad

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BACKGROUND Mucosal macrophages are involved in the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity and the elimination of invading pathogens. Although an intestinal barrier defect and microbial translocation are hallmarks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, recent data on gut mucosal macrophages in HIV infection are sparse. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE Adipokines have metabolic and inflammatory functions but can also affect bone metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin and markers of inflammation, disease activity, and radiographic spinal progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a predictor of radiographic spinal progression in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHODS Altogether, 172 patients with definite axSpA (95 with ankylosing spondylitis and 77 with non-radiographic axSpA) were included in this study. Spinal radiographs(More)
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) is caused by chronic infection with Tropheryma whipplei that seems to be associated with an underlying immune defect. The pathognomonic hallmark of CWD is a massive infiltration of the duodenal mucosa with T. whipplei-infected macrophages that disperse systemically to many other organ systems. An alleviated inflammatory(More)
Macrophage heterogeneity reflects their plasticity in response to environmental stimuli. Usually human macrophages are characterized by analysis of surface molecules or cytokine expression while functional assays are established in the mouse system but lacking for various human specimens. To evaluate the value of analysis of arginine metabolism for(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (aCCP) in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS A Markov model was used to model 10-year progression of RA in patients first diagnosed with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) and to estimate the incremental costs and(More)
Accumulation of Tropheryma whipplei-stuffed macrophages in the duodenum, impaired T. whipplei-specific Th1 responses, and weak secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12) are hallmarks of classical Whipple's disease (CWD). This study addresses dendritic cell (DC) functionality during CWD. We documented composition, distribution, and functionality of DC ex vivo or(More)
INTRODUCTION Innate immune responses, including monocyte functions, seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Therefore, we characterized the phenotype and functional state of monocytes of patients with axSpA. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with axSpA, 11 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 29 healthy(More)
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