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In the current global AIDS pandemic, more than half of new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections are acquired by women through intravaginal HIV exposure. For this study, we explored pathogenesis issues relevant to the development of effective vaccines to prevent infection by this route, using an animal model in which female rhesus macaques(More)
The current knowledge about early innate immune responses at mucosal sites of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry is limited but likely to be important in the design of effective HIV vaccines against heterosexual transmission. This study examined the temporal and anatomic relationship between virus replication, lymphocyte depletion, and cytokine gene(More)
The reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor tenofovir (TFV) is highly effective in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current report describes extended safety and efficacy data on 32 animals that received prolonged (>or=1- to 13-year) daily subcutaneous TFV regimens. The likelihood of renal(More)
The initial host response to viral infection occurs after Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on dendritic cells (DC) are stimulated by viral nucleic acids (double-stranded RNA, single-stranded RNA) and alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and IFN-beta are produced. We hypothesized that pharmacologic induction of innate antiviral responses in the cervicovaginal mucosa by(More)
Messung und Bewertung der ökonomischen Effizienz klinischer Leistungserbringer sind wichtige, aber weit gehend ungelöste Probleme im Krankenhausmanagement. Auch für anästhesiologische und intensivmedizinische Leistungen kann ein „benchmarking“ mit anderen Leistungserbringern helfen, die eigene Effizienz einzuschätzen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein(More)
Immunization studies with HSV-1 and HSV-2 envelope proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were performed. After active immunization of mice with a gD-1 antigen (Leu53-Ala312) expressed as a fusion protein, the animals were protected from a lethal challenge with HSV-1 and HSV-2. In addition, antisera from rabbits immunized with the same gD-1 antigen also(More)
To better define the role of B cells in the control of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication, six rhesus monkeys were depleted of B cells by intravenous infusion of rituximab (anti-CD20) 28 days and 7 days before intravaginal SIVmac239 inoculation and every 21 days thereafter until AIDS developed. Although the blood and tissues were(More)
Attenuated primate lentivirus vaccines provide the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Thus, they provide an excellent model to examine the influence of the route of immunization on challenge outcome and to study vaccine-induced protective anti-SIV immune responses. In the present study, rhesus(More)
In rhesus macaques, classic systemic infection, characterized by persistent viremia and seroconversion, occurred after multiple low-dose (10(3) 50% tissue culture infective doses) intravaginal (IVAG) inoculations with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIVmac251. Monkeys developed classic SIV infections after a variable number of low-dose IVAG(More)
BACKGROUND In vitro and clinical observations in HIV-infected patients receiving interferon alpha therapy have shown a reduction in HIV loads. Limited investigations have explored the innate or adaptive immune responses of IFN-alpha on SIV replication in vivo. METHODS Seven chronically infected rhesus macaques were given pegylated IFN-alpha 2a (n = four)(More)