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Macrophages dominate sites of CNS injury in which they promote both injury and repair. These divergent effects may be caused by distinct macrophage subsets, i.e., "classically activated" proinflammatory (M1) or "alternatively activated" anti-inflammatory (M2) cells. Here, we show that an M1 macrophage response is rapidly induced and then maintained at sites(More)
Stress and glucocorticoids exacerbate pain via undefined mechanisms. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a constitutively expressed protein that is secreted to maintain immune function when glucocorticoids are elevated by trauma or stress. Here we show that MIF is essential for the development of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and for(More)
Macrophages exert divergent effects in the injured CNS, causing either neurotoxicity or regeneration. The mechanisms regulating these divergent functions are not understood but can be attributed to the recruitment of distinct macrophage subsets and the activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we show that impaired signaling via the(More)
Spinal contusion pathology in rats and mice is distinct. Cystic cavities form at the impact site in rats while a dense connective tissue matrix occupies the injury site in mice. Because inflammatory cells coordinate mechanisms of tissue injury and repair, we evaluated whether the unique anatomical presentation in spinally injured rats and mice is associated(More)
Activation of macrophages via toll-like receptors (TLRs) is important for inflammation and host defense against pathogens. Recent data suggest that non-pathogenic molecules released by trauma also can trigger inflammation via TLR2 and TLR4. Here, we tested whether TLRs are regulated after sterile spinal cord injury (SCI) and examined their effects on(More)
Susceptibility to neuroinflammatory disease is influenced in part by genetics. Recent data indicate that survival of traumatized neurons is strain dependent and influenced by polygenic loci that control resistance/susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of CNS autoimmune disease. Here, we describe patterns of(More)
After central nervous system (CNS) trauma, axons have a low capacity for regeneration. Regeneration failure is associated with a muted regenerative response of the neuron itself, combined with a growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic post-injury environment. After spinal cord injury (SCI), resident and infiltrating immune cells (especially microglia/macrophages)(More)
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are part of the innate immune response and were originally discovered for their role in recognizing pathogens by ligating specific pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by microbes. Now the role of PRRs in sterile inflammation is also appreciated, responding to endogenous stimuli referred to as "damage(More)
There is growing recognition that psychological stress influences pain. Hormones that comprise the physiological response to stress (e.g., corticosterone; CORT) may interact with effectors of neuropathic pain. To test this hypothesis, mice received a spared nerve injury (SNI) after exposure to 60 min restraint stress. In stressed mice, allodynia was(More)
Following spinal trauma, the limited physiological axonal sprouting that contributes to partial recovery of function is dependent upon the intrinsic properties of neurons as well as the inhibitory glial environment. The transcription factor p53 is involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, cell survival, and axonal outgrowth, suggesting p53 as key modifier of(More)