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The human parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) has many features that make it attractive as a vector for gene therapy. However, the broad host range of AAV2 might represent a limitation for some applications in vivo, because recombinant AAV vector (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer would not be specific for the tissue of interest. This host range is(More)
We present genome-wide occupancy profiles for RNA polymerase (Pol) II, its phosphorylated forms and transcription factors in proliferating yeast. Pol II exchanges initiation factors for elongation factors during a 5' transition that is completed 150 nucleotides downstream of the transcription start site (TSS). The resulting elongation complex is composed of(More)
The eukaryotic RNA polymerases Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III are the central multiprotein machines that synthesize ribosomal, messenger, and transfer RNA, respectively. Here we provide a catalog of available structural information for these three enzymes. Most structural data have been accumulated for Pol II and its functional complexes. These studies have(More)
To initiate gene transcription, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) requires the transcription factor IIB (B). Here we present the crystal structure of the complete Pol II-B complex at 4.3 A resolution, and complementary functional data. The results indicate the mechanism of transcription initiation, including the transition to RNA elongation. Promoter DNA is(More)
To allow the direct visualization of viral trafficking, we genetically incorporated enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid by replacement of wild-type VP2 by GFP-VP2 fusion proteins. High-titer virus progeny was obtained and used to elucidate the process of nuclear entry. In the absence of adenovirus 5 (Ad5),(More)
The unique region of the VP1 protein of parvoviruses was proposed to contain a parvoviral phospholipase A2 (pvPLA2) motif. Here, PLA2 activity is shown in the unique region of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) VP1 when expressed as an isolated domain in bacteria. Mutations in this region of the capsid protein strongly reduced the infectivity of mutant(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV2) is a promising vector for human somatic gene therapy. However, its broad host range is a disadvantage for some applications, because it reduces the specificity of the gene transfer. To overcome this limitation, we sought to create a versatile rAAV vector targeting system which would allow us to redirect rAAV(More)
During transcription elongation, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binds the general elongation factor Spt5. Spt5 contains a repetitive C-terminal region (CTR) that is required for cotranscriptional recruitment of the Paf1 complex (D. L. Lindstrom et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23:1368-1378, 2003; Z. Zhang, J. Fu, and D. S. Gilmour, Genes Dev. 19:1572-1580, 2005). Here(More)
After transcription initiation, RNA polymerase (Pol) II escapes from the promoter and recruits elongation factors. The molecular basis for the initiation-elongation factor exchange during this transition remains poorly understood. Here, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to elucidate the initiation-elongation transition of Pol II in the budding(More)