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Progressive HIV disease has been associated with loss of memory T cell responses to Ag. To better characterize and quantify long-lived memory T cells in vivo, we have refined an in vivo labeling technique to study the kinetics of phenotypically distinct, low-frequency CD8(+) T cell subpopulations in humans. HIV-negative subjects and antiretroviral-untreated(More)
A significant enrichment of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (regulatory T cells, Treg) is frequently observed in murine and human carcinomas. As Tregs can limit effective antitumor immune responses, thereby promoting tumor progression, it is important that the mechanisms underpinning intratumoral accumulation of Tregs are identified. Because of evidence gathered(More)
The CD8(+) TCR repertoires specific for many immunogenic epitopes of CMV and EBV are dominated by a few TCR clonotypes and involve public TCRs that are shared between many MHC-matched individuals. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the observed sharing of epitope-specific TCRbeta chains between individuals is strongly associated with TCRbeta(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) both cause lifelong persistent infections, but differ in their clinical outcomes. HTLV-1 infection causes a chronic or acute T-lymphocytic malignancy in up to 5% of infected individuals whereas HTLV-2 has not been unequivocally linked to a T-cell malignancy. Virus-driven clonal proliferation of(More)
The beta-herpesvirus CMV induces a substantial and progressive expansion of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells, which protect the host against viral reactivation from latency. In this paper, we report that this expansion, or "inflation," of memory T cells is amplified dramatically during mouse CMV infection of IL-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice. T cells from(More)
The localization of memory T cells to human skin is essential for long-term immune surveillance and the maintenance of barrier integrity. Although the mechanisms controlling memory T-cell migration to peripheral tissues are poorly understood, the current paradigm includes the localized secretion of "imprinting" signals from tissue-resident dendritic cells(More)
PURPOSE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of(More)
Active immunization using tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells holds promise for the adjuvant treatment of cancer to eradicate or control residual disease, but so far, most dendritic cell trials have been performed in end-stage cancer patients with high tumor loads. Here, in a phase I/II trial, we investigated the effect of autologous dendritic cell(More)
Flow cytometry with fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) tetramers has transformed the study of antigen-specific T-cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we demonstrate that the reversible protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) dasatinib improves(More)
Improving T cell Ags by altering MHC anchor residues is a common strategy used to enhance peptide vaccines, but there has been little assessment of how such modifications affect TCR binding and T cell recognition. In this study, we use surface plasmon resonance and peptide-MHC tetramer binding at the cell surface to demonstrate that changes in primary(More)