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The CD8(+) TCR repertoires specific for many immunogenic epitopes of CMV and EBV are dominated by a few TCR clonotypes and involve public TCRs that are shared between many MHC-matched individuals. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the observed sharing of epitope-specific TCRbeta chains between individuals is strongly associated with TCRbeta(More)
Progressive HIV disease has been associated with loss of memory T cell responses to Ag. To better characterize and quantify long-lived memory T cells in vivo, we have refined an in vivo labeling technique to study the kinetics of phenotypically distinct, low-frequency CD8(+) T cell subpopulations in humans. HIV-negative subjects and antiretroviral-untreated(More)
The localization of memory T cells to human skin is essential for long-term immune surveillance and the maintenance of barrier integrity. Although the mechanisms controlling memory T-cell migration to peripheral tissues are poorly understood, the current paradigm includes the localized secretion of "imprinting" signals from tissue-resident dendritic cells(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) both cause lifelong persistent infections, but differ in their clinical outcomes. HTLV-1 infection causes a chronic or acute T-lymphocytic malignancy in up to 5% of infected individuals whereas HTLV-2 has not been unequivocally linked to a T-cell malignancy. Virus-driven clonal proliferation of(More)
PURPOSE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of(More)
Active immunization using tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells holds promise for the adjuvant treatment of cancer to eradicate or control residual disease, but so far, most dendritic cell trials have been performed in end-stage cancer patients with high tumor loads. Here, in a phase I/II trial, we investigated the effect of autologous dendritic cell(More)
Flow cytometry with fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) tetramers has transformed the study of antigen-specific T-cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we demonstrate that the reversible protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) dasatinib improves(More)
Improving T cell Ags by altering MHC anchor residues is a common strategy used to enhance peptide vaccines, but there has been little assessment of how such modifications affect TCR binding and T cell recognition. In this study, we use surface plasmon resonance and peptide-MHC tetramer binding at the cell surface to demonstrate that changes in primary(More)
T cell immunity can potentially eradicate malignant cells and lead to clinical remission in a minority of patients with cancer. In the majority of these individuals, however, there is a failure of the specific T cell receptor (TCR)–mediated immune recognition and activation process. Here we describe the engineering and characterization of new reagents(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that detects microbial metabolites presented by the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecule MR1. The highly conserved nature of MR1 in conjunction with biased MAIT TCRα chain usage is widely thought to indicate limited ligand presentation(More)