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Progressive HIV disease has been associated with loss of memory T cell responses to Ag. To better characterize and quantify long-lived memory T cells in vivo, we have refined an in vivo labeling technique to study the kinetics of phenotypically distinct, low-frequency CD8(+) T cell subpopulations in humans. HIV-negative subjects and antiretroviral-untreated(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) both cause lifelong persistent infections, but differ in their clinical outcomes. HTLV-1 infection causes a chronic or acute T-lymphocytic malignancy in up to 5% of infected individuals whereas HTLV-2 has not been unequivocally linked to a T-cell malignancy. Virus-driven clonal proliferation of(More)
Improving T cell Ags by altering MHC anchor residues is a common strategy used to enhance peptide vaccines, but there has been little assessment of how such modifications affect TCR binding and T cell recognition. In this study, we use surface plasmon resonance and peptide-MHC tetramer binding at the cell surface to demonstrate that changes in primary(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that detects microbial metabolites presented by the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecule MR1. The highly conserved nature of MR1 in conjunction with biased MAIT TCRα chain usage is widely thought to indicate limited ligand presentation(More)
A significant enrichment of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (regulatory T cells, Treg) is frequently observed in murine and human carcinomas. As Tregs can limit effective antitumor immune responses, thereby promoting tumor progression, it is important that the mechanisms underpinning intratumoral accumulation of Tregs are identified. Because of evidence gathered(More)
BACKGROUND Current influenza vaccines have reduced immunogenicity and are of uncertain efficacy in older adults. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-NP+M1, a viral-vectored influenza vaccine designed to boost memory T cell responses, in a group of older adults. METHODS Thirty volunteers (aged 50-85) received a single intramuscular injection(More)
Flow cytometry with fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) tetramers has transformed the study of antigen-specific T-cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we demonstrate that the reversible protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) dasatinib improves(More)
The evolution of immune blockades in tumors limits successful antitumor immunity, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Depletion of regulatory T cells (Treg), a T-cell subset that dampens excessive inflammatory and autoreactive responses, can allow activation of tumor-specific T cells. However, cancer immunotherapy studies(More)
The beta-herpesvirus CMV induces a substantial and progressive expansion of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells, which protect the host against viral reactivation from latency. In this paper, we report that this expansion, or "inflation," of memory T cells is amplified dramatically during mouse CMV infection of IL-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice. T cells from(More)
Altered peptide antigens that enhance T-cell immunogenicity have been used to improve peptide-based vaccination for a range of diseases. Although this strategy can prime T-cell responses of greater magnitude, the efficacy of constituent T-cell clonotypes within the primed population can be poor. To overcome this limitation, we isolated a CD8(+) T-cell clone(More)