Kristin L. Dunkle

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BACKGROUND Gender-based violence and gender inequality are increasingly cited as important determinants of women's HIV risk; yet empirical research on possible connections remains limited. No study on women has yet assessed gender-based violence as a risk factor for HIV after adjustment for women's own high-risk behaviours, although these are known to be(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of Stepping Stones, a HIV prevention programme, on incidence of HIV and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) and sexual behaviour. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING 70 villages (clusters) in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. PARTICIPANTS 1360 men and 1416 women aged 15-26 years, who were mostly(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-sectional studies have shown that intimate partner violence and gender inequity in relationships are associated with increased prevalence of HIV in women. Yet temporal sequence and causality have been questioned, and few HIV prevention programmes address these issues. We assessed whether intimate partner violence and relationship power(More)
Sex workers have long been considered a high-risk group for HIV infection, but to date little quantitative research has explored the association between HIV risk and exchange of sex for material gain by women in the general population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such transactional sex among women attending antenatal(More)
BACKGROUND Sub-Saharan Africa has a high rate of HIV infection, most of which is attributable to heterosexual transmission. Few attempts have been made to assess the extent of HIV transmission within marriages, and HIV-prevention efforts remain focused on abstinence and non-marital sex. We aimed to estimate the proportion of heterosexual transmission of HIV(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine associations between the perpetration of intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviour among young men in rural South Africa. DESIGN An analysis of baseline data from men enrolling in a randomized controlled trial of the behavioural intervention, Stepping Stones. METHODS Structured interviews with 1275 sexually experienced men(More)
Gender-based violence is a key health risk for women globally and in South Africa. The authors analyzed data from 1,395 interviews with women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa, between November 2001 and April 2002 to estimate the prevalence of physical/sexual partner violence (55.5%), adult sexual assault by nonpartners (7.9%), child(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the study design, methods and baseline findings of a behavioural intervention trial aimed at reducing HIV incidence. METHOD A cluster randomized-controlled trial (RCT) conducted in 70 villages in rural South Africa. A behavioural intervention, Stepping Stones, was implemented in 35 communities in two workshops of 20 men and 20 women(More)
Sexual violence is a well-recognised global health problem, but there has been remarkably little research on men as perpetrators. The objectives of this paper are to describe the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with rape of an intimate partner and a woman who was not a partner with men aged 15-26 years in rural South Africa. The analysis(More)
BACKGROUND This paper aims to describe factors associated with HIV sero-status in young, rural South African women and the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV. METHODS A total of 1295 sexually active female volunteers, aged 15-26, from 70 villages were recruited to participate in a cluster randomized controlled trial of an HIV(More)