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PTEN encodes a major tumor-suppressor protein that is a dual-specificity phosphatase. Inactivation of PTEN has been shown to be involved in heritable and sporadic cancers. Mutation or deletion of PTEN, historically the most commonly identified mechanisms of inactivation of tumor suppressors, is found only in the minority of sporadic non-cultured primary(More)
Germline mutations distributed across the PTEN tumor-suppressor gene have been found to result in a wide spectrum of phenotypic features. Originally shown to be a major susceptibility gene for both Cowden syndrome (CS), which is characterized by multiple hamartomas and an increased risk of breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancers, and(More)
Germline intragenic mutations in PTEN are associated with 80% of patients with Cowden syndrome (CS) and 60% of patients with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS). The underlying genetic causes remain to be determined in a considerable proportion of classic CS and BRRS without a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-detectable PTEN mutation. We hypothesized(More)
Individuals with PTEN mutations have Cowden syndrome (CS), associated with breast, thyroid, and endometrial neoplasias. Many more patients with features of CS, not meeting diagnostic criteria (termed CS-like), are evaluated by clinicians for CS-related cancer risk. Germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunits SDHB-D cause(More)
Germline mutations in the gene encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN [MIM 601728]) are associated with a number of clinically distinct heritable cancer syndromes, including both Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS). Seemingly identical pathogenic PTEN mutations have been observed in patients(More)
PTEN, a tumor suppressor phosphatase that dephosphorylates both protein and lipid substrates, is mutated in both heritable and sporadic breast cancer. Until recently, PTEN-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were thought to occur through its well-documented cytoplasmic activities. We have shown that PTEN localizes to the nucleus coincident with the(More)
Epidemiological data suggest that consumption of phytoestrogens can be protective against the development of breast cancer. It may be logical to postulate that phytoestrogens may regulate proteins that control cellular division, such as the tumor suppressor PTEN. Germline, and more significantly, somatic PTEN mutations have been observed in a broad range of(More)
Germline mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene PTEN predispose to heritable breast cancer. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) has also been implicated as a tumor suppressor pertinent to a range of neoplasias, including breast cancer. We previously demonstrated that lovastatin may signal through PPARgamma(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates many cellular processes through complex signal-transduction pathways that have crucial roles in normal development. Disruption of these pathways can lead to a range of diseases, including cancer. Mutations in the genes that encode members of the TGF-beta pathway are involved in vascular diseases as well(More)
The tumour suppressor gene PTEN encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase that recognizes protein and phosphatidylinositiol substrates and modulates cellular functions such as migration and proliferation. Germline mutations of PTEN have been shown to cause Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Proteus syndrome. Recently, germline mutations in(More)