Kristie M. Grebe

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Influenza A virus (IAV) strains are denoted by the subtype of their hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) virion surface proteins. Major changes in HA subtype among strains circulating in humans are referred to as "antigenic shift". Antigenic shift can occur by two means: direct transmission of a zoonotic strain to humans or through reshuffling of the(More)
Although the sympathetic nervous system innervates the lung, little is known about its participation in host immunity to pulmonary pathogens. In this study, we show that peripheral sympathectomy reduces mouse morbidity and mortality from influenza A virus-induced pneumonia due to reduced inflammatory influx of monocytes, neutrophils, and NK cells. Mortality(More)
Unstimulated monocytes of at-risk/type 1 diabetic humans and macrophages of the NOD mouse have markedly elevated autocrine GM-CSF production and persistent STAT5 phosphorylation. We analyzed the relationship between GM-CSF production and persistent STAT5 phosphorylation in NOD macrophages using reciprocal congenic mouse strains containing either(More)
Proteasomes are multisubunit proteases that initiate degradation of many Ags presented by MHC class I molecules. Vertebrates express alternate forms of each of the three catalytic proteasome subunits: standard subunits, and immunosubunits, which are constitutively expressed by APCs and are induced in other cell types by exposure to cytokines. The assembly(More)
Despite the longstanding appreciation of communication between the nervous and the immune systems, the nature and significance of these interactions to immunity remain enigmatic. Here, we show that 6-hydroxydopamine-mediated ablation of the mouse peripheral sympathetic nervous system increases primary CD8(+) T cell responses to viral and cellular antigens(More)
Aberrant prostaglandin synthase 2 (PGS2/COX2) expression constitutes an antigen presenting cell (APC) dysfunction seen in monocytes of humans at risk for or with Type 1 diabetes. During endotoxin activation of PGS2 expression in healthy monocytes, granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is activated and, in turn, promotes PGS2 gene(More)
Thymocytes that are not positively selected are said to undergo "death by neglect." We have found that ligation of CD8, either by antibodies or MHC class I molecules, induces apoptosis of CD4(+)CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes. The susceptibility of thymocytes to CD8-mediated apoptosis is developmentally regulated and confined to a subpopulation of DP(More)
Autocrine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) sequentially activates intracellular components in monocyte/macrophage production of the pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory prostanoid, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). GM-CSF first induces STAT5 signaling protein phosphorylation, then prostaglandin synthase 2 (COX2/PGS2) gene expression, and(More)
METHODS We examined monocyte prostaglandin synthase 2 (PGS2/COX2) expression in individuals at risk for or with type 1 diabetes including: (i) 58 established type 1 and 2 diabetic patients; (ii) 34 autoantibody positive (AA+) children and adults; (iii) 164 infants and young children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) susceptibility human(More)