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What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS), through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings (CR), through which(More)
Dienes and Seth (2010) conclude that confidence ratings and post-decision wagering are two comparable and recommendable measures of conscious experience. In a recently submitted paper, we have however found that both methods are problematic and seem less suited to measure consciousness than a direct introspective measure. Here, we discuss the methodology(More)
Recent reports have supported the existence of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian CNS. Important features of such cells are self-renewal and multipotency, i.e., they can give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes and thus in principle replace lost cells in the CNS. Observations in several animal models of CNS diseases have shown that by(More)
The brain has limited capacity, and so selective attention enhances relevant incoming information while suppressing irrelevant information. This process is not always successful, and the frequency of such cognitive failures varies to a large extent between individuals. Here we hypothesised that individual differences in cognitive failures might be reflected(More)
Two electrophysiological components have been extensively investigated as candidate neural correlates of perceptual consciousness: An early, occipitally realized component occurring 130-320 ms after stimulus onset and a late, frontally realized component occurring 320-510 ms after stimulus onset. Recent studies have suggested that the late component may not(More)
Comparison of behavioural measures of consciousness has attracted much attention recently. In a recent article, Szczepanowski et al. conclude that confidence ratings (CR) predict accuracy better than both the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) and post-decision wagering (PDW) when using stimuli with emotional content (fearful vs. neutral faces). Although we(More)
Type I IFNs, which include IFN-alpha, appear to have complex and broad-ranging actions in the central nervous system (CNS) that may result in protection or injury. To better understand these issues, we generated transgenic mice that produce IFN-alpha1 chronically from astrocytes. These glial fibrillary acidic protein-IFN-alpha transgenic mice developed a(More)
It is generally accepted that the voltage-gated, tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel, Na(V)1.7, is selectively expressed in peripheral ganglia. However, global deletion in mice of Na(V)1.7 leads to death shortly after birth (Nassar et al. [2004] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101:12706-12711), suggesting that this ion channel might be more widely(More)
Recent findings suggest that cortical gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels may provide a surrogate marker for a number of psychiatric and neurological conditions, as well as behavioural traits. However, the natural variability of GABA levels in the human brain over long periods of time (>8 days) has not yet been studied. The purpose of this work was to(More)
Proteome analysis in the central nervous system area represents a large and important challenge in drug discovery. One major problem is to obtain representative and well characterized tissues of high quality for analysis. We have used brain tissues from normal mice to study the effect of post mortem time (up to 32 h) and temperature (4 degrees C and room(More)