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We consider the extension of the classical mathematical theory of plasticity to frictional materials. It is shown that the apparently nonassociated plastic flow characteristics often observed in such materials can be accounted for by models that are variational in structure. In addition, the theory predicts a number of new terms and functional relationships… (More)
Starting from a thermomechanical description of elastoplasticity, a stress-based variational principle is derived. The principle, which generalizes von Mises's principle of maximum plastic dissipation, reproduces the conventional elastic/hardening-plastic framework applicable to metals as a special case and further proves to be suitable for developing… (More)
The paper describes some recent developments in the application of lower bound shakedown analysis to geotechnical problems. The theoretical basis of shakedown analysis is briefly reviewed along with the necessary finite element and optimization procedures. In terms of applications, the primary focus is on pavement design which is discussed in some detail.