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Absorbance spectra were recorded by microspectrophotometry from 39 different rod and cone types representing amphibians. reptiles, and fishes, with A1- or A2-based visual pigments and lambdamax ranging from 357 to 620 nm. The purpose was to investigate accuracy limits of putative universal templates for visual pigment absorbance spectra, and if possible to(More)
Difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) models for the receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells accurately predict linear responses to both periodic stimuli (typically moving sinusoidal gratings) and aperiodic stimuli (typically circular fields presented as square-wave pulses). While the relation of spatial organization to retinal anatomy has received considerable(More)
Rod and cone photoresponses in a variety of species have been accurately described with linear multistage filter models. In this study, the response latency and initial coding of intensity at two higher levels of visual processing are related to such photoreceptor responses. One level is the retinal output (spiking discharges from frog ganglion cells, based(More)
The spatial and temporal summation of light by the receptive field centre of frog retinal ganglion cells were studied by extracellular recording in the eyecup preparation. The purpose was to quantify how summation changes with the state of light and dark adaptation and to clarify whether changes are due to the transition between rod and cone vision. Spatial(More)
Responses to flashes and steps of light were recorded intracellularly from rods and horizontal cells, and extracellularly from ganglion cells, in toad eyecups which were either dark adapted or exposed to various levels of background light. The average background intensities needed to depress the dark-adapted flash sensitivity by half in the three cell(More)
The accuracy of toad snapping towards moving worm dummies under various levels of dim illumination (from absolute threshold to "moonlight") was video-recorded and related to spike responses of retinal ganglion cells exposed to equivalent stimuli. Some toads (at ca. 16 degrees C) successfully snapped at dummies that produced only one photoisomerization per(More)
We measured foveal flicker sensitivity with and without external added temporal noise at various levels of retinal illuminance and described the data with our model of flicker sensitivity comprising: (i) low-pass filtering of the flickering signal plus external temporal and/or quantal noise by the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the retina (R): (ii)(More)
The effects of temperature changes on rod photoresponses were studied by recording the aspartate-isolated mass receptor potential in the dark-adapted retina of the frog Rana temporaria. The amplitude of saturating responses, indicating the magnitude of the dark current, increased linearly with temperature in the measured range 6-26 degrees C, extrapolating(More)
The kinetics of rod responses to flashes and steps of light was studied as a function of background intensity (IB) at the photoreceptor and ganglion cell levels in the frog retina. Responses of the rod photoreceptors were recorded intracellularly in the eyecup and as ERG mass potentials across the isolated, aspartate-superfused retina. The kinetics of the(More)