Kristian Donner

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Absorbance spectra were recorded by microspectrophotometry from 39 different rod and cone types representing amphibians. reptiles, and fishes, with A1- or A2-based visual pigments and lambdamax ranging from 357 to 620 nm. The purpose was to investigate accuracy limits of putative universal templates for visual pigment absorbance spectra, and if possible to(More)
The weakest pulse of light a human can detect sends about 100 photons through the pupil and produces 10-20 rhodopsin isomerizations in a small retinal area. It has been postulated that we cannot see single photons because of a retinal noise arising from randomly occurring thermal isomerizations. Direct recordings have since demonstrated the existence of(More)
The accuracy of toad snapping towards moving worm dummies under various levels of dim illumination (from absolute threshold to “moonlight”) was videorecorded and related to spike responses of retinal ganglion cells exposed to equivalent stimuli. Some toads (at ca. 16 °C) successfully snapped at dummies that produced only one photoisomerization per 50 rods(More)
Literature data on light detection by cone and rod vision at absolute threshold are analysed in order (1) to decide whether the threshold performance of dark-adapted cone vision can, like that of rod vision, be consistently explained as limited by noise from a "dark light"; (2) to obtain comparable estimates of the dark noise and dark light of (foveal)(More)
Rod and cone photoresponses in a variety of species have been accurately described with linear multistage filter models. In this study, the response latency and initial coding of intensity at two higher levels of visual processing are related to such photoreceptor responses. One level is the retinal output (spiking discharges from frog ganglion cells, based(More)
1. The absolute sensitivity of vision was studied as a function of temperature in two species of frog (Rana temporaria, 9-21 degrees C, and Rana pipiens, 13-28 degrees C). 2. Log behavioural threshold (measured as the lowest light intensity by which frogs trying to escape from a dark box were able to direct their jumping) rose near-linearly with warming(More)
A visual pigment molecule in a retinal photoreceptor cell can be activated not only by absorption of a photon but also "spontaneously" by thermal energy. Current estimates of the activation energies for these two processes in vertebrate rod and cone pigments are on the order of 40-50 kcal/mol for activation by light and 20-25 kcal/mol for activation by(More)
Difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) models for the receptive fields of retinal ganglion cells accurately predict linear responses to both periodic stimuli (typically moving sinusoidal gratings) and aperiodic stimuli (typically circular fields presented as square-wave pulses). While the relation of spatial organization to retinal anatomy has received considerable(More)
Foveal flicker sensitivity at 0.5-30 Hz was measured as a function of the spectral density of external, white, purely temporal noise for a sharp-edged 2.5 deg circular spot (mean luminance 3.4 log phot td). Sensitivity at any given temporal frequency was constant at low powers of external noise, but then decreased in inverse proportion to the square root of(More)
Dark noise, light-induced noise and responses to brief flashes of light were recorded in the membrane current of isolated rods from larval tiger salamander retina before and after bleaching most of the native visual pigment, which mainly has the 11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal (A2) chromophore, and regenerating with the 11-cis-retinal (A1) chromophore in the same(More)