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When gibbons travel through the forest canopy, brachiation is alternated with short bipedal bouts over horizontal boughs. We know, from previous research, that brachiation is a very efficient locomotor mode that makes use of a pendulum-like exchange of energy, but to date, nothing is known about the dynamics of hylobatid bipedalism. We wondered if gibbons(More)
We describe segment angles (trunk, thigh, shank, and foot) and joint angles (hip, knee, and ankle) for the hind limbs of bonobos walking bipedally ("bent-hip bent-knee walking," 17 sequences) and quadrupedally (33 sequences). Data were based on video recordings (50 Hz) of nine subjects in a lateral view, walking at voluntary speed. The major differences(More)
We collected high-resolution plantar pressure distributions of seven bonobos during terrestrial bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion (N = 146). Functional foot length, degree of hallux abduction, and total contact time were determined, and plots, showing pressure as a function of time for six different foot regions, were generated. We also studied five adult(More)
It is commonly held that the major functional features of the human foot (e.g. a functional longitudinal medial arch, lateral to medial force transfer and hallucal (big-toe) push-off) appear only in the last 2 Myr, but functional interpretations of footbones and footprints of early human ancestors (hominins) prior to 2 million years ago (Mya) remain(More)
This study gives a qualitative and quantitative description of the different terrestrial locomotor modes of a group of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) from the Wild Animal Park Planckendael, Belgium. The gibbons were filmed during voluntary locomotion on a grassy and smooth substrate and on a pole. These video images allowed us to define seven(More)
Swimming movements of 7 European green frogs (Rana esculenta) were studied, starting from the detailed analysis of the speed and timing of the propulsive, glide, and recovery phases of their intermittent swimming behavior. First, the authors identified the spatiotemporal factors used by the frogs to modulate their swimming behavior. None of the gait(More)
Gibbons are highly arboreal apes, and it is expected that their bipedal locomotion will show some particularities related to the arboreal environment. Previous research has shown that, during hylobatid bipedalism, unsupported phases are rare and stride frequencies are relatively low. This study confirms previous findings, and we suggest that low stride(More)
Gibbons are skilled brachiators but they are also highly capable leapers, crossing distances in excess of 10 m in the wild. Despite this impressive performance capability, no detailed biomechanical studies of leaping in gibbons have been undertaken to date. We measured ground reaction forces and derived kinematic parameters from high-speed videos during(More)
The ostrich is highly specialized in terrestrial locomotion and is the only extant bird that is both didactyl and exhibits a permanently elevated metatarsophalangeal joint. This extreme degree of digitigrady provides an excellent opportunity for the study of phalangeal adaptation towards fast, sustained bipedal locomotion. Data were gathered in a(More)
The storage and recovery of elastic strain energy in the musculoskeletal systems of locomoting animals has been extensively studied, yet the external environment represents a second potentially useful energy store that has often been neglected. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of orangutans to usefully recover energy from swaying trees to(More)