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We describe segment angles (trunk, thigh, shank, and foot) and joint angles (hip, knee, and ankle) for the hind limbs of bonobos walking bipedally ("bent-hip bent-knee walking," 17 sequences) and quadrupedally (33 sequences). Data were based on video recordings (50 Hz) of nine subjects in a lateral view, walking at voluntary speed. The major differences(More)
We collected high-resolution plantar pressure distributions of seven bonobos during terrestrial bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion (N = 146). Functional foot length, degree of hallux abduction, and total contact time were determined, and plots, showing pressure as a function of time for six different foot regions, were generated. We also studied five adult(More)
It is commonly held that the major functional features of the human foot (e.g. a functional longitudinal medial arch, lateral to medial force transfer and hallucal (big-toe) push-off) appear only in the last 2 Myr, but functional interpretations of footbones and footprints of early human ancestors (hominins) prior to 2 million years ago (Mya) remain(More)
Fossilized footprints contain information about the dynamics of gait, but their interpretation is difficult, as they are the combined result of foot anatomy, gait dynamics, and substrate properties. We explore how footprints are generated in modern humans. Sixteen healthy subjects walked on a solid surface and in a layer of fine-grained sand. In each(More)
When gibbons travel through the forest canopy, brachiation is alternated with short bipedal bouts over horizontal boughs. We know, from previous research, that brachiation is a very efficient locomotor mode that makes use of a pendulum-like exchange of energy, but to date, nothing is known about the dynamics of hylobatid bipedalism. We wondered if gibbons(More)
Swimming movements of 7 European green frogs (Rana esculenta) were studied, starting from the detailed analysis of the speed and timing of the propulsive, glide, and recovery phases of their intermittent swimming behavior. First, the authors identified the spatiotemporal factors used by the frogs to modulate their swimming behavior. None of the gait(More)
Flexion/extension moment arms were obtained for the major muscles crossing the hip, knee and ankle joints in the orang-utan, gibbon, gorilla (Eastern and Western lowland) and bonobo. Moment arms varied with joint motion and were generally longer in proximal limb muscles than distal limb muscles. The shape of the moment arm curves (i.e. the plots of moment(More)
This paper illustrates how simple mechanical models based on morphological, ethological, ecological and phylogenetic data can add to discussions in evolutionary biology. Bipedal locomotion has evolved on numerous occasions in lizards. Traits that appear repeatedly in independent evolutionary lines are often considered adaptive, but the exact advantages of(More)
This study investigates the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos, and compares it with the human foot. Gibbons and bonobos are both highly arboreal species, yet they have a different locomotor behaviour. Gibbon locomotion is almost exclusively arboreal and is characterized by speed and mobility, whereas bonobo locomotion entails some terrestrial(More)
This study gives a qualitative and quantitative description of the different terrestrial locomotor modes of a group of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) from the Wild Animal Park Planckendael, Belgium. The gibbons were filmed during voluntary locomotion on a grassy and smooth substrate and on a pole. These video images allowed us to define seven(More)