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OBJECTIVE The development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often has been attributed to injury from mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen. Early lung inflammation in infants with BPD has been thought to be secondary to these factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether preexisting (prenatal) inflammation may be a primary causative(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND. Many extremely low birth weight infants (<1000 g) show biochemical evidence of adrenal insufficiency in the first week of life, correlating with subsequent development of chronic lung disease (CLD). METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled pilot study to test whether early treatment with low-dose(More)
Two surfactant protein A (SP-A) genes and several alleles for each SP-A locus have been previously described. In this report we investigate the potential usefulness of the SP-A loci as markers for genetic studies. We establish conditions that allow the identification of alleles with very similar sequences; We also determine the degree of polymorphism for(More)
OBJECTIVE This report presents data from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network on care of and morbidity and mortality rates for very low birth weight infants, according to gestational age (GA). METHODS Perinatal/neonatal data were collected for 9575 infants of extremely low GA (22-28(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate to minimize retinopathy without increasing adverse outcomes. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Guidelines for prevention of group B streptococcal (GBS) infection have successfully reduced early onset (EO) GBS disease. Study results suggest that Escherichia coli is an important EO pathogen. OBJECTIVE To determine EO infection rates, pathogens, morbidity, and mortality in a national network of neonatal centers. METHODS Infants with EO(More)
BACKGROUND Infants developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) show decreased cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone. A pilot study of low-dose hydrocortisone therapy for prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency showed improved survival without BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, particularly in infants exposed to histologic chorioamnionitis. (More)
IMPORTANCE Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models. OBJECTIVE To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in(More)
OBJECTIVE Relative adrenal insufficiency in extremely low birth weight infants may contribute to significant morbidity and death. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between cortisol concentrations and short-term outcomes. METHODS Cortisol concentrations were obtained for 350 intubated, extremely low birth weight infants at postnatal age of 12(More)
BACKGROUND In neonatal trials of pre-term or low-birth-weight infants, twins may represent 10-20% of the study sample. Mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations are common approaches for handling correlated continuous or binary data. However, the operating characteristics of these methods for mixes of correlated and independent data are not(More)