Kristi L. Watterberg

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IMPORTANCE Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models. OBJECTIVE To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in(More)
BACKGROUND Infants developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) show decreased cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone. A pilot study of low-dose hydrocortisone therapy for prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency showed improved survival without BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, particularly in infants exposed to histologic chorioamnionitis. (More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate to minimize retinopathy without increasing adverse outcomes. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) responses to critical illness in term and late preterm newborns and examine the relationship of these values to measures of clinical illness, including markers of cardiovascular dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN In this prospective observational study, we measured ACTH, baseline cortisol and(More)
BACKGROUND Low cortisol concentrations in premature infants have been correlated with increased severity of illness, hypotension, mortality, and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A total of 360 mechanically ventilated infants with a birth weight of 500 to 999 g were enrolled in a randomized, multicenter trial of prophylaxis of early adrenal(More)
BACKGROUND The benefit-risk ratio has been proposed to measure the tradeoff between benefits and risks of two therapies for a single binary measure of efficacy and a single adverse event. The ratio is calculated from the difference in risk and difference in benefit between therapies. Small sample sizes or expected differences in benefit or risk can lead to(More)
OBJECTIVE For infants born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW), we examined the (1) correlation between results on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) at 18 to 22 months corrected age; (2) degree to which earlier ASQ assessments predict later BSID-II results; (3) impact of ASQ use on follow-up(More)
Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that(More)
BACKGROUND In neonatal trials of pre-term or low-birth-weight infants, twins may represent 10-20% of the study sample. Mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations are common approaches for handling correlated continuous or binary data. However, the operating characteristics of these methods for mixes of correlated and independent data are not(More)