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P56 is the most abundant protein induced by interferon (IFN) treatment of human cells. To facilitate studies on its induction pattern and cellular functions, we expressed recombinant P56 as a hexahistidine-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and purified it to apparent homogeneity using affinity chromatography. A polyclonal antibody raised against this(More)
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a frequent byproduct of virus infection, is recognized by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) to mediate innate immune response to virus infection. TLR3 signaling activates the transcription factor IRF-3 by its Ser/Thr phosphorylation, accompanied by its dimerization and nuclear translocation. It has been reported that the Ser/Thr(More)
Upon infection with many RNA viruses, the cytoplasmic retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) pathway activates the latent transcription factor IRF-3, causing its nuclear translocation and the induction of many antiviral genes, including those encoding interferons. Here, we report a novel and distinct activity of IRF-3, in virus-infected cells, that induces(More)
Innate immune response to viral infection is often triggered by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated signaling by double-stranded (ds) RNA, which culminates in the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and induction of NF-kappaB-driven genes. We demonstrated that dsRNA-induced phosphorylation of two specific tyrosine residues, 759 and 858, of(More)
IRAK4 is a member of IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase (IRAK) family and has been shown to play an essential role in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling. We recently generated IRAK4 kinase-inactive knock-in mice to examine the role of kinase activity of IRAK4 in TLR-mediated signaling pathways. The IRAK4 kinase-inactive knock-in mice were(More)
Double-stranded (ds) RNA induces transcription of the 561 gene by activating IFN regulatory factor (IRF) transcription factors, whereas similar induction of the IFN-beta gene is thought to require additional activation of NFkappaB and AP-1. In mutant P2.1 cells, dsRNA failed to activate NFkappaB, IRF-3, p38, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and transcription of(More)
The cellular Bcr protein consists of an N-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain, a central guanine nucleotide exchange factor homology region and a C-terminal GTPase-activating protein domain. Previous work in our laboratory established that Bcr is a major transformation-related substrate for the v-Fps tyrosine kinase, and tyrosine phosphorylation of Bcr(More)
Here, we report that specific manipulations of the cellular response to virus infection can cause prevention of apoptosis and consequent establishment of persistent infection. Infection of several human cell lines with Sendai virus (SeV) or human parainfluenza virus 3, two prototypic paramyxoviruses, caused slow apoptosis, which was markedly accelerated(More)
The human c-fes protooncogene encodes a protein-tyrosine kinase (c-Fes) distinct from c-Src, c-Abl and other nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Although originally identified as the cellular homolog of several transforming retroviral oncoproteins, Fes was later found to exhibit strong expression in myeloid hematopoietic cells and to play a direct role in their(More)
The human c-fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (Fes) that is associated with multiple hematopoietic cytokine receptors. Fes tyrosine autophosphorylation sites may regulate kinase activity and recruit downstream signaling proteins with SH2 domains. To localize the Fes autophosphorylation sites, full-length Fes and deletion mutants(More)