Kristen S. Gorman

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The notion of common ground is important for the production of referring expressions: In order for a referring expression to be felicitous, it has to be based on shared information. But determining what information is shared and what information is privileged may require gathering information from multiple sources, and constantly coordinating and updating(More)
When referring to named objects, speakers can choose either a name (mbira) or a description (that gourd-like instrument with metal strips); whether the name provides useful information depends on whether the speaker's knowledge of the name is shared with the addressee. But, how do speakers determine what is shared? In 2 experiments a naïve participant(More)
Listeners expect that a definite noun phrase with a pre-nominal scalar adjective (e.g., the big …) will refer to an entity that is part of a set of objects contrasting on the scalar dimension, e.g., size (Sedivy, Tanenhaus, Chambers & Carlson, 1999). Two visual world experiments demonstrate that uttering a referring expression with a scalar adjective makes(More)
Speakers must take their addressee's knowledge into account in choosing to refer to an object using a name or a description. Do speakers keep track of partner-specific information about the common ground status of names? And if so, what mechanisms support this ability? We present a series of experiments that investigate the nature of the memory(More)
This chapter provides practical strategies for addressing common challenges that arise for teachers in active learning classrooms. Our strategies come from instructors with experience teaching in these environments. Active learning classrooms (ALCs) provide opportunities for increased student engagement and interaction with classmates and the instructor.(More)
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