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Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms, a parasite of raccoons, can infect humans, sometimes fatally. Parasite eggs can remain viable in raccoon latrines for years. To develop a management technique for parasite eggs, we tested anthelmintic baiting. The prevalence of eggs decreased at latrines, and larval infections decreased among intermediate hosts,(More)
BACKGROUND Neutrophils play an important role in the pathophysiology of RSV, though RSV does not appear to directly activate neutrophils in the lower airways. Therefore locally produced cytokines or other molecules released by virally-infected airway epithelial cells are likely responsible for recruiting and activating neutrophils. Heat shock proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries. A common characteristic of allergens is that they contain intrinsic protease activity, and many have been shown to activate protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 in vitro. The role for PAR-2 in mediating allergic airway inflammation has not been assessed using a real world allergen. METHODS(More)
The role of TLR2 in modulating experimentally induced asthma is not fully understood. We recently identified that German cockroach (GC) frass contains a TLR2 ligand allowing us to investigate the role of a TLR2 agonist in a complex real world allergen in mediating allergic airway inflammation. GC frass exposure significantly increased airway inflammation,(More)
BACKGROUND A common characteristic of allergens is that they contain proteases that can activate protease-activated receptor (PAR-2); however the mechanism by which PAR-2 regulates allergic airway inflammation is unclear. METHODS Mice (wild type and PAR-2-deficient) were sensitized using German cockroach (GC) feces (frass), the isolated protease from GC(More)
BACKGROUND Recognition of repeat unmethylated CpG motifs from bacterial DNA through Toll-like receptor (TLR-9) has been shown to induce interleukin (IL)-8 expression in immune cells. We sought to investigate the role of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) on a human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. Inhalation of fecal remnants (frass) is the likely sensitizing agent; however isolated frass has not been tested for its ability to induce experimental asthma in mice. METHODS Mice (Balb/c or C57Bl/6) were sensitized and challenged with GC frass or GC frass devoid of(More)
German cockroach extract synergistically regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human airway epithelial cells. The IL-8 promoter contains nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activating protein (AP)-1, and NF for IL-6 (NF-IL6) transcription factor binding regions. Because cockroach extract activates extracellular(More)
BACKGROUND Zinc supplementation can modulate immunity through inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor that controls many immune response genes. Thus, we sought to examine the mechanism by which zinc supplementation tempers the response to a common allergen and determine its effect on allergic airway inflammation. METHODS Mice were injected with zinc(More)
Baylisascaris procyonis, a common roundworm of raccoons, causes severe or fatal human infections, often in suburban areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of a baiting strategy requiring minimal labor, we distributed medicated baits near raccoon latrines in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA. This strategy lowered B. procyonis prevalence in raccoons, possibly(More)