Kristen M. Leraas

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BACKGROUND Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic class. Some are indolent; others quickly progress to glioblastoma. The uncertainty is compounded by(More)
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular(More)
BACKGROUND Papillary renal-cell carcinoma, which accounts for 15 to 20% of renal-cell carcinomas, is a heterogeneous disease that consists of various types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary(More)
Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three(More)
This research compared delay discounting in mothers and their children (12 or 13 years of age). Half of the mothers (n=15) were current smokers, and the other half (n=15) reported never smoking. Considerable research has shown that adult smokers discount more by delay than nonsmokers, and that parent smoking is a risk factor for adolescent smoking. Thus, it(More)
This research compared impulsive behavior in adolescent nonsmokers with low ratings of psychopathy (n = 25) and daily smokers with low (n = 25) and high (n = 25) ratings of psychopathy. Assessments of impulsive behavior included question-based and real-time measures of delay discounting and a self report assessment of impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness(More)
There has been a wealth of research providing evidence for the relationship between stress and cigarette smoking during adolescence. Despite this knowledge, little is known about possible behavioral mechanisms by which stress exerts its influence on the decision to smoke. This study sought to examine one such behavioral characteristic, delay discounting,(More)
The present study evaluated a new 30-day Web-based contingency management program for smoking abstinence with 4 daily-smoking adolescents. Participants made 3 daily video recordings of themselves giving breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples at home that were sent electronically to study personnel. Using a reversal design, participants could earn money for(More)
We report a comprehensive analysis of 412 muscle-invasive bladder cancers characterized by multiple TCGA analytical platforms. Fifty-eight genes were significantly mutated, and the overall mutational load was associated with APOBEC-signature mutagenesis. Clustering by mutation signature identified a high-mutation subset with 75% 5-year survival. mRNA(More)
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