Kristen M Alexander

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ATP functions as a fast neurotransmitter through the specific activation of a family of ligand-gated ion channels termed P2X receptors. In this report, six distinct recombinant P2X receptor subtypes were pharmacologically characterized in a heterologous expression system devoid of endogenous P2 receptor activity. cDNAs encoding four human P2X receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Over 54 generations, we have successfully bred a strain of rats that maximizes urinary calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls, uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones, and are termed genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. These rats were used to test the(More)
Adenosine (ADO) is an inhibitory neuromodulator that can increase nociceptive thresholds in response to noxious stimulation. Inhibition of the ADO-metabolizing enzyme adenosine kinase (AK) increases extracellular ADO concentrations at sites of tissue trauma and AK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. ABT-702(More)
The activity of ATP as a fast neurotransmitter is mediated by the P2X family of ligand-gated ion channels. P2X receptor subtypes are subject to functional modulation by a diverse set of factors, including pH, divalent cations, and temperature. The human P2X(3) (hP2X(3)) receptor subunit is expressed primarily in sensory ganglia where it exists as either a(More)
Adenosine kinase (AK) inhibitors potentiate the actions of endogenous adenosine (ADO) and ameliorate cerebral ischemic damage in animal models. The present study examined the effects of the AK inhibitor, 5-iodotubercidin (5-IT) in an in vitro model of neuronal ischemia, specifically, combined oxygen-glucose deprivation of rat cortical mixed neuronal-glial(More)
A decrease in blood pH may be due to either a reduction in bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)]; metabolic acidosis) or to an increase in PCO(2) (respiratory acidosis). In mammals, metabolic, but not respiratory, acidosis increases urine calcium excretion without altering intestinal calcium absorption, indicating that the additional urinary calcium is(More)
Metabolic acidosis induces bone calcium efflux initially by physicochemical dissolution and subsequently by cell-mediated mechanisms involving inhibition of osteoblasts and stimulation of osteoclasts. In rat kidney, acidosis increases endogenous prostaglandin synthesis, and in bone, prostaglandins are important mediators of resorption. To test the(More)
A novel series of pyridopyrimidine analogues 9 was identified as potent adenosine kinase inhibitors based on the SAR and computational studies. Substitution of the C7 position of the pyridopyrimidino core with C2' substituted pyridino moiety increased the in vivo potency and enhanced oral bioavailability of these adenosine kinase inhibitors.
The synthesis and SAR of a novel series of non-nucleoside pyridopyrimidine inhibitors of the enzyme adenosine kinase (AK) are described. It was found that pyridopyrimidines with a broad range of medium and large non-polar substituents at the 5-position potently inhibited AK activity. A narrower range of analogues was capable of potently inhibiting adenosine(More)