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Checklist usage can increase performance in complex, high-risk domains. While paper checklists are valuable, they are static, slow to access, and show both too much and too little information. We introduce <i>Dynamic Procedure Aids</i> to address four key problems in checklist usage: ready access to aids, rapid assimilation of content, professional(More)
Insect endosymbionts influence many important metabolic and developmental processes of their host. It has been speculated that they may also help to manipulate and suppress plant defenses to the benefit of herbivores. Recently, endosymbionts of the root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera have been reported to suppress the induction of defensive(More)
Previous studies have argued that enhanced activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway can promote tumor cell survival in response to cytotoxic insults. In this study, we examined the impact of MAPK signaling on the survival of primary hepatocytes exposed to low concentrations of(More)
Complex, perilous domains like surgery and aviation require accurate responses under extreme time constraints. Checklists improve important outcomes in these domains. However, current designs are based largely on intuition; there is little theory or empirical work about designing effective procedure aids. Furthermore, discretionary checklist use is(More)
Positional cloning in maize (Zea mays) requires development of markers in the region of interest. We found that primers designed to amplify annotated insertion-deletion polymorphisms of seven base pairs or greater between B73 and Mo17 produce polymorphic markers at a 97% frequency with 49% of the products showing co-dominant fragment length polymorphisms.(More)
Exposure of C6 glioma cells to endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused dose-dependent (10(-11) M to 10(-7) M) increments in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and c-fos mRNA expression (4.5-fold) that were abolished by the endothelinA receptor antagonist, BQ610, and by inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122. ET-1 stimulated c-fos mRNA expression was also(More)
—In disk drive technology, lubricant thickness and roughness are important, but often overlooked, contributors to slider–disk spacing. In this paper, we use X-ray reflectivity to measure the thickness and lubricant–air roughness of a perfluo-ropolyether lubricant (Fomblin Zdol) on silicon wafers and carbon overcoats. For Zdol on smooth silicon, the(More)
X-ray reflectivity has been used to measure the roughness of perfluoropolyether ͑PFPE͒ polymer films on silicon substrates and carbon overcoats. For PFPE on smooth silicon, we find that the rms roughness of the PFPE–air interface increases slowly from about 2 to 4 Å as PFPE thickness increases from 5 to 33 Å. This increase is consistent with capillary waves(More)
Emergency medical teams collaborate to solve problems and take care of patients under time pressure and high cognitive load, in noisy and complex environments. This paper presents preliminary work in the design and evaluation of head-mounted and multi-surface displays in supporting teams with interactive checklists and more generally dynamic cognitive aids.
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