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Schizophrenia (SCZD) is a debilitating neurological disorder with a world-wide prevalence of 1%; there is a strong genetic component, with an estimated heritability of 80-85%. Although post-mortem studies have revealed reduced brain volume, cell size, spine density and abnormal neural distribution in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of SCZD brain(More)
A major goal of stem-cell research is to identify conditions that reliably regulate their differentiation into specific cell types. This goal is particularly important for human stem cells if they are to be used for in vivo transplantation or as a platform for drug development. Here we describe the establishment of procedures to direct the differentiation(More)
We used single-cell genomic approaches to map DNA copy number variation (CNV) in neurons obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines and postmortem human brains. We identified aneuploid neurons, as well as numerous subchromosomal CNVs in euploid neurons. Neurotypic hiPSC-derived neurons had larger CNVs than fibroblasts, and several large(More)
It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches--dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU--we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We(More)
Bipolar disorder is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by intermittent episodes of mania and depression; without treatment, 15% of patients commit suicide. Hence, it has been ranked by the World Health Organization as a top disorder of morbidity and lost productivity. Previous neuropathological studies have revealed a series of(More)
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been derived from fibroblast, stomach, and liver cultures at extremely low frequencies by ectopic expression of the transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4, a process coined direct or in vitro reprogramming [1-8]. iPS cells are molecularly and functionally highly similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs),(More)
In healthy adult mice, the beta cell population is not maintained by stem cells but instead by the replication of differentiated beta cells. It is not known, however, whether all beta cells contribute equally to growth and maintenance, as it may be that some cells replicate while others do not. Understanding precisely which cells are responsible for beta(More)
The availability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offers the opportunity to generate lineage-specific cells to investigate mechanisms of human diseases specific to brain regions. Here, we report a differentiation paradigm for hPSCs that enriches for hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons. This differentiation paradigm recapitulates the(More)
Consistent with recent reports indicating that neurons differentiated in vitro from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are immature relative to those in the human brain, gene expression comparisons of our hiPSC-derived neurons to the Allen BrainSpan Atlas indicate that they most resemble fetal brain tissue. This finding suggests that, rather than(More)
Although psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder affect a number of brain regions and produce a complex array of clinical symptoms, basic phenotypes likely exist at the level of single neurons and simple networks. Being highly heritable, it is hypothesized that these disorders are amenable to cell-based(More)