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The process of autophagy, or bulk degradation of cellular proteins through an autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway, is important in normal growth control and may be defective in tumour cells. However, little is known about the genetic mediators of autophagy in mammalian cells or their role in tumour development. The mammalian gene encoding Beclin 1, a novel(More)
Whereas co-stimulation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and CD28 triggers T-cell activation, stimulation of the TCR alone may result in an anergic state or T-cell deletion, both possible mechanisms of tolerance induction. Here we show that T cells that are deficient in the adaptor molecule Cbl-b (ref. 3) do not require CD28 engagement for interleukin-2(More)
Cellular proto-oncogenes can be activated by both point mutations and chromosomal translocations, suggesting that there may be a direct link between exposure to agents which damage DNA and genetic change leading to malignancy. Several groups have therefore analysed mutations found in cellular oncogenes of tumours induced by particular physical or chemical(More)
Specification of embryonic polarity and pattern formation in multicellular organisms requires inductive signals from neighboring cells. One approach toward understanding these interactions is to study mutations that disrupt development. Here, we demonstrate that mesd, a gene identified in the mesoderm development (mesd) deletion interval on mouse chromosome(More)
Activated Harvey murine sarcoma virus ras genes were introduced into epidermal cells in vivo by direct application of retroviruses to mouse skin. Subsequent treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced benign papillomas, some of which progressed to invasive carcinomas. Initiation with virus was irreversible for at(More)
The promoter region of the suprabasal keratin 10 gene has been used to direct expression of a mutant human Harvey-ras oncogene to the differentiating cells of the mouse epidermis. Transgenic animals develop hyperkeratosis of the skin and forestomach--the two sites known to express high levels of the keratin 10 polypeptide in vivo. Papillomas subsequently(More)
The goal of understanding the molecular basis of human tumor development has been greatly facilitated by the use of animal model systems in which the etiology of tumor development can be carefully controlled. Environmental chemicals, either naturally occurring or artificially produced, are thought to make a major contribution to the human tumor burden. Many(More)
Genomics-based predictors of drug response have the potential to improve outcomes associated with cancer therapy. Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary bone cancer in dogs, is commonly treated with adjuvant doxorubicin or carboplatin following amputation of the affected limb. We evaluated the use of gene-expression based models built in an intra- or(More)
piRNAs silence foreign genes, such as transposons, to preserve genome integrity, but they also target endogenous mRNAs by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans piRNAs interact with both transposon and nontransposon mRNAs to initiate sustained silencing via the RNAi pathway. To assess the dysregulation of gene silencing caused by lack(More)
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