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We used homologous recombination in the mouse to knock-out RC3, a postsynaptic, calmodulin-binding PKC substrate. Mutant brains exhibited lower immunoreactivity to phospho-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) but had the same synaptic density as wild type and did not exhibit a gross neuroanatomical phenotype. Basal excitatory synaptic(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the medulla oblongata have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of autonomic function. The aim of the present study was to examine the localization and expression of four types of mGluRs: mGluRla, mGluR2/3, mGluR5, and mGluR7 in the dorsal and ventral autonomic nuclei of the medulla of the rat. The(More)
Endothelial cells retract centripetally when they are exposed to histamine and when extracellular calcium is chelated. This centripetal retraction implies that a centripetal tension must be expressed in the cells. We asked whether phosphorylation of the light chain of myosin (MLC) was important for the retraction to occur, and, by inference, expression of(More)
Intrinsic membrane properties, voltage-dependent sodium and voltage-dependent potassium currents of area postrema neurons in culture have been characterized with respect to their voltage dependence, time dependence and sensitivity to specific blocking agents. The area postrema is a hindbrain circumventricular organ which is known to have an important role(More)
The kinetics of interaction of excitatory amino acid analogues and reputed antagonists with a specific binding site for [3H]L-glutamate, having a Kd of 600 nM, were examined in washed cerebellar membranes incubated at 37 degrees C. Displacement curves were analyzed by an iterative computer program for a non-cooperative two-site competitive inhibition model.(More)
The effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor activation (mGluR) on voltage-gated potassium currents have been characterized in visceral sensory afferent neurons. L-Glutamate is known to be a primary neurotransmitter in visceral afferents which terminate at the level of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Synaptic communication between these afferents(More)
1. Calcium currents in rabbit area postrema neurons were studied with the perforated patch-clamp technique. Experimental conditions eliminated Na+ and K+ currents and identified both low- and high-threshold voltage-activated calcium currents. 2. Low-threshold, T-type calcium currents were observed in 64% of the area postrema neurons recorded. This current(More)
This study reports on the effects of activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors on area postrema neuron cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In 140 of 242 area postrema neurons isolated from postnatal rats, application of 100 microM L-glutamate (L-Glu) resulted in a significant increase in [Ca2+]i. The remaining neurons were unaffected. The effects(More)
It is well established that neurons in the dorsal medulla, including the area postrema and the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS), are involved in the central actions of circulating peptides such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). This report describes a preparation that permits the identification and maintenance of area(More)