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Giant inhibitory terminals with multiple synapses, the counterparts of excitatory "detonator" or "driver" terminals, have not been described in the forebrain. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of electron microscopic images, we quantitatively characterize a GABAergic pathway that establishes synaptic contacts exclusively via multiple synapses. Axon(More)
The anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) and the zona incerta (ZI) are diencephalic nuclei that exert a strong inhibitory influence selectively in higher order thalamic relays. The APT is also known to project to the ZI as well as the thalamus, but anatomical details of the APT-ZI projection have not been described. In the present study, the efferent pathways(More)
Organization of behavior requires rapid coordination of brainstem and forebrain activity. The exact mechanisms of effective communication between these regions are presently unclear. The intralaminar thalamic nuclei (IL) probably serves as a central hub in this circuit by connecting the critical brainstem and forebrain areas. We found that GABAergic and(More)
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