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In future climates, greater heat tolerance at anthesis will be required in rice. The effect of high temperature at anthesis on spikelet fertility was studied on IR64 (lowland indica) and Azucena (upland japonica) at 29.6 degrees C (control), 33.7 degrees C, and 36.2 degrees C tissue temperatures. The objectives of the study were to: (i) determine the effect(More)
Protein misfolding is the molecular basis for several human diseases. How the primary amino acid sequence triggers misfolding and determines the benign or toxic character of the misfolded protein remains largely obscure. Among proteins that misfold, polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion proteins provide an interesting case: Each causes a distinct(More)
Several neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the toxicity of misfolded proteins. This toxicity must arise from a combination of the amino acid sequences of the misfolded proteins and their interactions with other factors in their environment. A particularly compelling example of how profoundly these intramolecular and intermolecular factors can(More)
Episodes of high temperature at anthesis, which in rice is the most sensitive stage to temperature, are expected to occur more frequently in future climates. The morphology of the reproductive organs and pollen number, and changes in anther protein expression, were studied in response to high temperature at anthesis in three rice (Oryza sativa L.)(More)
Behavior cannot be predicted from a "connectome" because the brain contains a chemical "map" of neuromodulation superimposed upon its synaptic connectivity map. Neuromodulation changes how neural circuits process information in different states, such as hunger or arousal. Here we describe a genetically based method to map, in an unbiased and brain-wide(More)
Hybrid vigour may help overcome the negative effects of climate change in rice. A popular rice hybrid (IR75217H), a heat-tolerant check (N22), and a mega-variety (IR64) were tested for tolerance of seed-set and grain quality to high-temperature stress at anthesis at ambient and elevated [CO(2)]. Under an ambient air temperature of 29 °C (tissue temperature(More)
In Drosophila, the four inner photoreceptor neurons exhibit overlapping but distinct spectral sensitivities and mediate behaviors that reflect spectral preference. We developed a genetic strategy, Tango-Trace, that has permitted the identification of the connections of the four chromatic photoreceptors. Each of the four stochastically distributed chromatic(More)
Panicle exsertion, an essential physiological process for obtaining high grain yield in rice is mainly driven by peduncle (uppermost internode) elongation. Drought at heading/panicle emergence prevented peduncle elongation from reaching its maximum length even after re-watering. This inhibitory effect of drought resulted in delayed heading and trapping(More)
In future climates, rice crops will be frequently exposed to water deficit and heat stress at the most sensitive flowering stage, causing spikelet sterility and yield losses. Water deficit alone and in combination with heat stress significantly reduced peduncle elongation, trapping 32% and 55% of spikelets within the leaf sheath, respectively. Trapped(More)
Phenotypic plasticity in overcoming heat stress-induced damage across hot tropical rice-growing regions is predominantly governed by relative humidity. Expression of transpiration cooling, an effective heat-avoiding mechanism, will diminish with the transition from fully flooded paddies to water-saving technologies, such as direct-seeded and aerobic rice(More)