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The three-dimensional structure of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was determined by NMR spectroscopy. SDF-1 is a monomer with a disordered N-terminal region (residues 1-8), and differs from other chemokines in the packing of the hydrophobic core and surface charge distribution. Results with analogs showed that the N-terminal eight residues formed an(More)
The presence of disulfide bonds can be detected unambiguously only by X-ray crystallography, and otherwise must be inferred by chemical methods. In this study we demonstrate that 13C NMR chemical shifts are diagnostic of disulfide bond formation, and can discriminate between cysteine in the reduced (free) and oxidized (disulfide bonded) state. A database of(More)
Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and, in particular, chemical shift perturbation (CSP) titration experiments are ideally suited for characterizing the binding interface of macromolecular complexes. (1)H-(15) N-HSQC-based CSP studies have become the method of choice due to their simplicity, short time requirements, and not requiring(More)
CXCL8 (also known as IL-8) activates CXCR1 and CXCR2 to mediate neutrophil recruitment and trigger cytotoxic effect at sites of infection. Under physiological conditions, CXCL8 could exist as monomers, dimers, or a mixture of monomers and dimers. Therefore, both forms of CXCL8 could interact with CXCR1 and CXCR2 with different affinities and potencies to(More)
Chemokines play a fundamental role in trafficking of immune cells and in host defense against infection. The role of chemokines in the recruitment process is highly regulated spatially and temporally and involves interactions with G protein-coupled receptors and cell surface glycosaminoglycans. The dynamic equilibrium between chemokine monomers and dimers,(More)
Chemokines mediate diverse functions from organogenesis to mobilizing leucocytes, and are unusual agonists for class-A GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) because of their large size and multi-domain structure. The current model for receptor activation, which involves interactions between chemokine N-loop and receptor N-terminal residues (Site-I) and(More)
Structural analysis of chemokines has revealed that the alpha/beta structural-fold is highly conserved among both the CXC and CC chemokine classes. Although dimerization and aggregation is often observed, the chemokines function as monomers. The critical receptor binding regions are in the NH2-terminal 20 residues of the protein and are the least ordered in(More)
The myxoma virus T7 protein M-T7 is a functional soluble gamma interferon receptor homolog that has previously been shown to bind gamma interferon and inhibit its antiviral activities in a species-specific manner, but gene knockout analysis has suggested a further role for M-T7 in blocking leukocyte influx into infected lesions. We purified M-T7 to apparent(More)
Rapid mobilization of neutrophils from vasculature to the site of bacterial/viral infections and tissue injury is a critical step in successful resolution of inflammation. The chemokine CXCL8 plays a central role in recruiting neutrophils. A characteristic feature of CXCL8 is its ability to reversibly exist as both monomers and dimers, but whether both(More)
Glu-Leu-Arg ("ELR") CXC chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) recruit neutrophils by binding and activating two receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. CXCR1 is specific, binding only IL-8 with nanomolar affinity, whereas CXCR2 is promiscuous, binding all ELRCXC chemokines with high affinity. Receptor signaling consists of two(More)