Krishna Rajarathnam

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The three-dimensional structure of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was determined by NMR spectroscopy. SDF-1 is a monomer with a disordered N-terminal region (residues 1-8), and differs from other chemokines in the packing of the hydrophobic core and surface charge distribution. Results with analogs showed that the N-terminal eight residues formed an(More)
The presence of disulfide bonds can be detected unambiguously only by X-ray crystallography, and otherwise must be inferred by chemical methods. In this study we demonstrate that 13C NMR chemical shifts are diagnostic of disulfide bond formation, and can discriminate between cysteine in the reduced (free) and oxidized (disulfide bonded) state. A database of(More)
The myxoma virus T7 protein M-T7 is a functional soluble gamma interferon receptor homolog that has previously been shown to bind gamma interferon and inhibit its antiviral activities in a species-specific manner, but gene knockout analysis has suggested a further role for M-T7 in blocking leukocyte influx into infected lesions. We purified M-T7 to apparent(More)
The solution structure of the CCR3-specific chemokine, eotaxin, has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. The quaternary structure of eotaxin was investigated by ultracentrifugation and NMR, and it was found to be in equilibrium between monomer and dimer under a wide range of conditions. At pH </= 5 and low ionic strength, eotaxin was found to be(More)
Structural analysis of chemokines has revealed that the alpha/beta structural-fold is highly conserved among both the CXC and CC chemokine classes. Although dimerization and aggregation is often observed, the chemokines function as monomers. The critical receptor binding regions are in the NH2-terminal 20 residues of the protein and are the least ordered in(More)
Glu-Leu-Arg ("ELR") CXC chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) recruit neutrophils by binding and activating two receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. CXCR1 is specific, binding only IL-8 with nanomolar affinity, whereas CXCR2 is promiscuous, binding all ELRCXC chemokines with high affinity. Receptor signaling consists of two(More)
Rapid mobilization of neutrophils from vasculature to the site of bacterial/viral infections and tissue injury is a critical step in successful resolution of inflammation. The chemokine CXCL8 plays a central role in recruiting neutrophils. A characteristic feature of CXCL8 is its ability to reversibly exist as both monomers and dimers, but whether both(More)
The structural and functional roles of the two disulfide bridges in interleukin-8 (IL-8) were addressed using IL-8 analogues with covalently modified disulfide bridges. The analogues were prepared using chemical synthesis by replacement of a cysteine for either homocysteine, penicillamine, or selenocysteine and on folding resulted in a covalently modified(More)
Chemokine IL-8 (CXCL8) binds to its cognate receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 to induce inflammatory responses, wound healing, tumorogenesis, and neuronal survival. Here we identify the N-loop residues in IL-8 (H18 and F21) and the receptor N-termini as the major structural determinants regulating the rate of receptor internalization, which in turn controlled the(More)
Chemokines play a fundamental role in trafficking of immune cells and in host defense against infection. The role of chemokines in the recruitment process is highly regulated spatially and temporally and involves interactions with G protein-coupled receptors and cell surface glycosaminoglycans. The dynamic equilibrium between chemokine monomers and dimers,(More)