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The effects of various Flustra foliacea metabolites on different types of human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated. Whereas most of the compounds tested had a small blocking effect, one of them, deformylflustrabromine, selectively increased the current obtained in alpha4beta2 receptors when(More)
Fluoride is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and alter the structure and function of neural tissue. There are few authoritative reports on neurodegenerative changes in hippocampus, neocortex, cerebellum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve in fluoride intoxication. We report the alterations in the structure of neuronal tissue after chronic administration of(More)
Cyclic AMP- (cAMP) and calcium-dependent agonists stimulate chloride secretion through the coordinated activation of distinct apical and basolateral membrane channels and ion transporters in mucosal epithelial cells. Defects in the regulation of Cl- transport across mucosal surfaces occur with cystic fibrosis and V. cholerae infection and can be life(More)
OBJECTIVES A relationship between autism and gastrointestinal (GI) immune dysregulation has been postulated based on incidence of GI complaints as well as macroscopically observed lymphonodular hyperplasia and microscopically determined enterocolitis in pediatric patients with autism. To evaluate GI immunity, we quantitatively assessed levels of(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a multifunctional cytokine whose net principle action is to diminish inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of IL-13 production has been proposed to contribute to intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Previous studies implicate IL-13 in IBD pathogenesis; however, they fail to accurately(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) co-infection remains an enormous burden to international public health. Post-mortem studies have highlighted the high proportion of HIV-positive adults admitted to hospital with TB. Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF assays can substantially increase diagnostic yield of TB within one day of hospital admission.(More)
Administration of ethanol (95%) extract (45 mg/kg body wt/day for 28 days) of garlic (A. sativum) to alloxan induced diabetic (ALX-D) mice significantly lowered the serum glucose levels, nociceptive response in tail-flick, hotplate, allodynia, formalin test and relative thickness, weight of hind paw in formalin induced Paw oedema test, over 28 days, thus,(More)
Dysregulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) production has been proposed to contribute to intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Previous studies, which evaluate adult patients with long-standing or steroid-modulated disease, have reported conflicting results regarding the role of IL-8 in IBD pathogenesis. The present study(More)
Sphingomyelinases (SMases) hydrolyze membrane sphingomyelin to ceramide and are expressed by diverse host and microbial cell types populating mucosal surfaces. Exogenous bacterial SMase acts on the basolateral membrane of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells to repress the cAMP-induced Cl(-) secretory response, but how this occurs is unknown. We show(More)